Survey of Broadcasting: Assignment 1, Question 1: Describe the five general steps of signal processing–Videos

Posted on June 21, 2011. Filed under: Audio, Broadcasting, Communications, Digital Communication, Radio, Signal Processors, Sound, Television | Tags: , , , , , , |

1. Describe the five general steps of signal processing.

Roger Waters – Radio KAOS – Radio Waves

    The five general steps in signal processing are as follows:

  1. Signal generation
  2. Signal amplification and processing
  3. Signal transmission
  4. Signal reception
  5. Signal storage.

Step 1 Signal Generation: Signal generation is the conversion or transduction of the sound or light waves from the source into electrical energy which corresponds to the frequency of the original source. The audio signal may be generated  mechanically using a microphone or turntable to create an analog of the original sound signal such as a phonograph record or audio cassette.  Microphones are used to transduce the physical energy of music and voice into electrical energy.The audio signal may be generated electromagnetically using tape recorders.The audio signal may also be generated digitally by using laser optics to create a binary or digital equivalent of the original sound.  Television signal generation requires electronic line-by-line scanning of an image using an electron beam to scan each element of the picture. The image is subsequently retraced by the television receiver.

Step 2 Signal Amplification and Processing: Audio and video signals are amplified and mixed using audio consoles and video switchers. After the audio signal has been converted from a physical sound wave into an electrical or digital facsimile, the audio signal must be amplified to boost the signal and processed including the mixing, combining and routing for broadcast transmission and/or recording. Sound sources are combined at the mixing board. The amplified sound may be fine tuned using equalizers and special effects. The switcher is used to mix TV signals and put the desired picture on the air. A special effect generator is used to add transitions, split screen and keying. Digital video editing and effects can also be produced using computer software such as Adobe Premiere Pro and After Effects.

Step 3 Signal Transmission: The electronic signal is superimposed  by a modulation process on a carrier wave  generated or propagated by the radio station on its assigned frequency. The generated sound wave may travel by ground, sky and direct waves. Radio waves occupy a segment of the electromagnetic spectrum. AM radio channel frequencies are divided into three main types: clear channels, regional channels and local channels. FM channel frequencies are classified by antenna height and power. Stereo broadcasting and other nonbroadcast services are accomplished with the wide bandwidth of the FM channel. Digital radio is satellite-based  or in-band on channel. Television signal transmission includes over-the-air broadcasting using the electromagnetic radiation on the VHF and UHF portions of the spectrum or by wire through a cable system using coaxial cable that can carry programming on more than 100 channels.. New transmission technologies used for transmission and distribution include satellite and fiber optics for digital signals.

Step 4 Signal Reception: After the radio signal has been transduced, modulated and transmitted, the radio waves are picked up on a radio receiver where they are transduced or converted by the speaker system back into sound waves. The characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum and modulation  method used in transmission determine the type of radio receiver needed to convert the signal back into sound waves.There are several types of radio receivers including AM, AM stereo, FM, shortwave, and multiband. These receivers can be equipped with either analog tuners or a digital system. For moving images both large and small-screen TVs are now receiving high-definition television vision signals. 

Step 5 Signal Storage: Both audio and video technology is used in the storage and retrieval of sounds and moving images.  Audio or video signals are transduced or converted for storage and eventual playback or rebroadcast. The storage medium have included glass discs, wire, vinyl, magnetic type, compact disc, video tapes, digital storage media such as digital versatile discs (DVDs) and computer hard drives including high-capacity disc drives.

Roger Waters – Radio KAOS – Tide Is Turning

Background Articles and Videos

 

Amplitude modulation tutorial & AM radio transmitter circuit 

 

The Professor – How does a radio work?

 

AM Modulation and Demodulation Part 1

 

Introduction to Radio Waves Training Course

 

High Definition Television (HDTV) : Difference Between High & Standard

 

Roger Waters – Radio KAOS – Intro

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Survey of Broadcasting: Assignment 1, Question 2:–Describe the economic and political dynamics that brought about the birth of RCA.–Videos

Posted on June 20, 2011. Filed under: Audio, Broadcasting, Business, Inventions, Mass Media, Radio, Technology | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

II. Describe the economic and political dynamics that brought about the birth of RCA.

 

        A hundred years ago radio or the wireless was used as a point-to-point communications device similar to the use of the telegraph and telephone using wires. 

   Radio waves instead of wires were used primarily in maritime communications to send messages from ship to ship and ship to shore.

   British-owned Marconi Company and its subsidiary,  Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, dominated the radio industry and controlled important patents including the Fleming value invented by John Fleming.

Sir John Ambrose Fleming

The Fleming value or vacuum tube consisted of a metal plate and thin wire enclosed in a glass bulb. The device enable the translating of an alternating current, like a radio wave, into direct current that could be detected by a radio receiver.

   The challenge was the detection of weak radio signals by radio receivers. Lee De Forest solved this problem by his invention of the audion that amplified weak radio signals. This was accomplished using a modified Fleming value with a tiny wire grid between the wire and the plate. The wire grid acted as an amplifier and boasted weak radio signals millions of times so that radio signals could be easily detected.

 

Lee De Forest

AT&T Archives: Bottle of Magic

 

Radio Commentator Jean Shepherd Meets Lee De Forest During WW2

 

A small bit of Radio History, Lee De Forest Audion, Marconi

De Forest envisioned radio as a broadcasting medium where entertainment and information would be received by a wide audience with radio receivers.

 This was in sharp contrast to the then use of radios as wireless telegraphy and telephony or a point-to-point communication device.

   The Marconi Company sued De Forest for patent infringement in using the Fleming value.

Faced with legal challenges from both the Marconi Company and the stockholders of his own company, De Forest Radio Telephone Company, De Forest sold his right to the audion to American Telephone & Telegraph or AT&T.

AT&T in turn used the audion to amplify signals in long distant calls.

De Forest continued to manufacture audions to radio hobbyists and manufactured radios or wireless sets for the military in World War I.

   General Electric or GE was also interested in radio.

GE held the patent rights to the high-speed alternators that produced electrical current with much higher frequencies than ordinary generators.

These alternators were used as continuous radio-wave generators.

Reginald Fessendon had invented this alternator design and demonstrated that the human voice could be carried by continuous radio waves generated by this transmitter.

Reginald Fessendon

GE had also improved the vacuum tube used in radios.

    Westinghouse, a major rival of General Electric, was also interested in radio. Westinghouse had acquired the patent rights to both an improved vacuum tube and the heterodyn radio receiver that was invented by Reginald Fessenden.

   Also, Edwin Armstrong had improved the audion by developing a positive feedback regenerative circuit that increased radio wave reception by regeneration amplification.

Edwin Armstrong

 

RCA Radio Model RC Operation

This RC radio is among one of the first products marketed by RCA in and about 1921. Westinghouse produced this RC radio for RCA. It is a battery set and uses three 01A vacuum tubes. The circuit is Edwin Howard Armstrong first major discovery, the regenerative circuit patented in 1914.

 

   In summary, the patents for radio transmitters and receivers were held by a number of companies and individuals including British Marconi, American Marconi, General Electric (GE), Westinghouse, American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), Lee De Forest and Edwin Armstrong.

For radio to advance in the future would require the pooling of these patents among economic competitive rivals.

   When the United States entered World War I in April 1917, the Federal Government gave the United States Navy the responsibility for all radio operations.

The United States Navy took over all commercial radio stations including forty-five commercial and eight high-powered stations owned and operated by American Marconi.

The Navy also assumed responsibility and full liability for all patent infringement.

Thus companies doing radio research and development were free to pool discoveries to develop a better radio system.

This resulted in better radio transmitters, radio receivers and vacuum tubes when War World I ended in November 1918.

   After the war, the United States Navy wanted to retain its control and monopoly over their radio system.

However, public sentiment was against this idea. The Navy then announced it was no longer responsible for patent infringement law suits.

This immediately lead to the patent problems that existed prior to the outbreak of the war.

  The Marconi Company was trying to purchase from General Electric the exclusive use of the high-powered alternators developed during World War 1.

Should the Marconi Company  be successful, it would dominate the radio transmitter market in America.

The United States Federal Government went to GE to come up with a solution to the situation. GE did not want to sell its alternators to the Marconi Company and the U.S. Government was opposed to  Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America controlled by the  British Marconi Company to dominate the radio industry in America.

Given this economic and political pressure, the  Marconi Company agreed to sell American Marconi to a new American company, Radio Corporation of America or RCA.

The stockholders of Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America exchanged their stock for shares of stock in RCS and British Marconi got cash from General Electric.

   RCA was born on October 17, 1919 when  Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America became RCA.

RCA viewed radio not as a medium for mass communications by broadcasting but as a point-to-point communications device like the telegraph or telephone.

The RCA business model was focused on making money by sending wireless telegraph and telephony to Europe, Latin America and Asia.

    The patent infringement and law suit problem was solved by GE and RCA entering into a cross-licensing agreement which allowed each company to use the other company’s discoveries.

Since AT&T still owned the De Forest audion patent, the U.S. government pressured AT&T to sign a cross-licensing agreement with RCA.

Westinghouse, a major GE rival, also held several important radio related patents. With GE having a major ownership stake in RCA, Westinghouse started its own wireless company, International Radio Telegraph Company.

GE offered Westinghouse a large stake in RCA in exchange for placing Westinghouse’s patents in the patent pool.

    By 1921, the major stockholders of RCA were GE with 30% of the shares, Westinghouse with about 20%, AT&T with about 10% and another 4% held by the United Fruit Company.

The cross-licensing of patents solved the existing patent problem. The radio industry was divided up with AT&T’s Western Electric subsidiary manufacturing radio transmitters, GE and Westinghouse manufacturing radio receivers or equipment, and RCA selling the radio receivers and equipment.

What the architects of RCA had failed to recognize is the future of radio was in broadcasting–mass communications.

Radio broadcasting took off in the roaring 20s and continues today.

 

 

Background Articles and Videos

Radio History

 

1920’s the radio

 

When Radio Was #1

 

When Radio Was #2

 

When Radio Was #3

 

When Radio Was #4

 

When Radio Was #5

 

When Radio Was #6

 

When Radio Was #7

 

 

The beginning of Commercial Radio

 

RCA

“…RCA Corporation, founded as the Radio Corporation of America, was an electronics company in existence from 1919 to 1986. Currently, the RCA trademark is owned by the French conglomerate Technicolor SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Technicolor. The trademark is used by Sony Music Entertainment and Technicolor, which licenses the name to other companies like Audiovox and TCL Corporation for products descended from that common ancestor.[2]

Origins

 RCA’s organization by General Electric

On August 4, 1914, the United Kingdom and France declared war on the German Empire and Austria-Hungary, following the German and Austrian invasions of their neighbors, including Serbia and the Russian Empire, which started World War I. Radio traffic across the Atlantic Ocean increased dramatically after the western Allies cut the German transatlantic submarine communication cables (telegraph-only at that time, well-before the first transatlantic telephone cable connected the United States with France in 1956.) Germany, Austria-Hungary, and their allies in Europe (the Central Powers) maintained contact with neutral countries in the Americas, such as the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru via long-distance radio communications, as well as via telegraph cables owned by neutral countries such as the Netherlands and Denmark.

In 1917, the U.S. Federal Government took charge of the patents owned by the major companies involved in radio manufacture in the United States in order to devote radio technology to the war effort. All production of radio equipment was allocated to the U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, and the U.S. Coast Guard. The U.S. Department of War and the U.S. Department of the Navy sought to maintain a Federal monopoly of all uses of radio technology. However, the wartime takeover of all radio systems ended with the tabling of a bill to continue this by the U.S. Congress sometime in the latter part of 1918. {World War I ended on November 11th.)

The ending of the Federal Government’s monopoly in radio communications did not prevent the Departments of War and of the Navy from creating a national radio system for the United States.[3] On April 8, 1919, the naval and Admiral W. H. G. Bullard and Captain Stanford C. Hooper met with executives of the General Electric Corporation (G.E.) to ask that their corporation to discontinue selling any of its Alexanderson alternators (used in the high-power amplitude modulation radio transmitters of that era) to the British-owned Marconi Company, and to its subsidiary, the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America.

The gist of the Army’s and Navy’s proposal was that if G.E. created an American-owned radio company, then the Army and Navy would be able to bring into effect a monopoly of long-distance radio communications via this company. This marked the beginning of a series of negotiations through which G.E. would buy the American Marconi company and then incorporate what would be called the Radio Corporation of America.[4]

Establishment

The incorporation of the assets of Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America (including David Sarnoff[5]), the Pan-American Telegraph Company, and those already controlled by the United States Navy led to a new publicly held company formed by General Electric (which owned a controlling interest) on 17 October 1919.[6] The following cooperation among RCA, General Electric, the United Fruit Company, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T) brought about innovations in high-power radio technology, and also the founding of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) in the United Sates. The Army and the Navy turned over the former American Marconi radio terminals (to RCA) that had been confiscated during World War I. (Note: there were no commercial radio stations anywhere in the world before 1922 when the station KDKA started broadcasting in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.) Admiral Bullard received a seat on the Board of Directors of RCA for his efforts in establishing RCA. The result was Federally-created monopolies in radio for GE and the Westinghouse Corporation and in telephone systems for the American Telephone & Telegraph Company.

The argument by the Department of War and the Department of the Navy that the usable radio frequencies were limited, and hence needed to be appropriated for use before other countries, such as the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Canada monopolized them, collapsed in the mid-1920s following the discovery of the practicality of the use of the shortwave radio band (3.0 MHz though 30.0 MHz) for very long-range radio communications.[7]

The first chief executive officer of RCA was Owen D. Young;[8] David Sarnoff became its general manager. The documents of incorporation of RCA explicitly required it be mostly owned by Americans. RCA took over the marketing of the radio equipment of G.E. and Westinghouse Westinghouse, and in follow-on agreements, RCA also acquired the radio patents that had been held by Westinghouse and the United Fruit Company. As the years went on, RCA either took over, or produced for itself, a large number of patents, including that of the superheterodyne receiver.

Over the years, RCA continued to operate international telecommunications services, under its subsidiary RCA Communications, Inc., and later the RCA Global Communications Company. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Corporation_of_America

 

John Ambrose Fleming

“…Sir John Ambrose Fleming (29 November 1849 – 18 April 1945) was an English electrical engineer and physicist. He is known for inventing the first thermionic valve or vacuum tube, the diode, then called the kenotron in 1904.[1] He is also famous for the left hand rule (for electric motors). …”

“…After leaving the University of Nottingham in 1882, Fleming took up the post of “Electrician” to the Edison Electrical Light Company, advising on lighting systems and the new Ferranti alternating current systems. In 1884 Fleming joined University College London taking up the Chair of Electrical Technology, the first of its kind in England. Although this offered great opportunities, he recalls in his autobiography that the only equipment provided to him was a blackboard and piece of chalk. In 1897 the Pender Laboratory was founding at University College, London and Fleming took up the Pender Chair after the £5000 was endowed as a memorial to John Pender, the founder of Cable and Wireless.[4] In 1899 Fleming became Scientific Advisor to the Marconi Company and soon after began work on the designing the power plant to enable the Marconi Company to transmit across the Atlantic.

In November 1904, he invented the two-electrode vacuum-tube rectifier, which he called the oscillation valve. He would later patent this invention.[5] It was also called a thermionic valve, vacuum diode, kenotron, thermionic tube, or Fleming valve. The Supreme Court of the United States later invalidated the patent because of an improper disclaimer and, additionally, maintained the technology in the patent was known art when filed.[6] This invention is often considered to have been the beginning of electronics, for this was the first vacuum tube.[7] Fleming’s diode was used in radio receivers and radars for many decades afterwards, until it was superseded by solid state electronic technology more than 50 years later.

Fleming retired from University College, London in 1927 at the age of 77. He remained active, becoming a committed advocate of the new technology of Television which included servicing as the first president of the Television Society.

John Ambrose Fleming (1906)

In 1906, Lee De Forest of the U.S. added a control “grid” to the valve to create a vacuum tube RF detector called the Audion, leading Fleming to accuse him of copying his ideas. De Forest’s device was shortly refined by him and Edwin H. Armstrong into the first electronic amplifier, a tube called the triode. The triode was vital in the creation of long-distance telephone and radio communications, radars, and early electronic digital computers (mechanical and electro-mechanical digital computers already existed using different technology). The court battle over these patents lasted for many years with victories at different stages for both sides. Fleming also contributed in the fields of photometry, electronics, wireless telegraphy (radio), and electrical measurements. He coined the term Power Factor to describe the true power flowing in an AC power system. He was knighted in 1929, and died at his home in Sidmouth, Devon in 1945. His contributions to electronic communications and radar were of vital importance in winning World War II. Fleming was awarded the IRE Medal of Honor in 1933 for “the conspicuous part he played in introducing physical and engineering principles into the radio art”.

Note from eulogy at the Centenary celebration of the invention of the thermionic valve:

One century ago, in November 1904, John Ambrose Fleming FRS, Pender Professor at UCL, filed GB 190424850  in Great Britain, for a device called the Thermionic Valve. When inserted together with a galvanometer, into a tuned electrical circuit, it could be used as a very sensitive rectifying detector of high frequency wireless currents, known as radio waves. It was a major step forward in the ‘wireless revolution’.

In November 1905, he patented the “Fleming Valve” (US 803684  ). As a rectifying diode, and forerunner to the triode valve and many related structures, it can also be considered to be the device that gave birth to modern electronics.

In the ensuing years, valves quickly superseded “cat’s whiskers” and were the main device used to create the huge electronics industry that we take for granted today. They remained dominant until the transistor took dominance in the early 1970s

Today, descendants of the original valve (or vacuum tube) still play an important role in a range of applications. They can be found in the power stages of radio and television transmitters, in some high-end audio amplifiers, as detectors of optical and short wavelength radiation, and in sensitive equipment that must be “radiation-hard”. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Ambrose_Fleming

Lee De Forest

“…Lee De Forest (August 26, 1873 – June 30, 1961) was an American inventor with over 180 patents to his credit. De Forest invented the Audion, a vacuum tube that takes relatively weak electrical signals and amplifies them. De Forest is one of the fathers of the “electronic age”, as the Audion helped to usher in the widespread use of electronics. He is also credited with one of the principal inventions which brought sound to motion pictures.

He was involved in several patent lawsuits and he spent a substantial part of his income from his inventions on the legal bills. He had four marriages and 25 companies, he was defrauded by business partners (as well as defrauding business partners himself), and he was once indicted for mail fraud, but was later acquitted.

He typically signed his name “Lee de Forest.”

He was a charter member of the Institute of Radio Engineers, one of the two predecessors of the IEEE (the other was the American Institute of Electrical Engineers).

DeVry University was originally named DeForest Training School, after Lee De Forest, by its founder Dr. Herman A. DeVry, who was a friend and colleague of De Forest’s.

“…Audion

De Forest had an interest in wireless telegraphy and he invented the Audion in 1906. He then developed an improved wireless telegraph receiver.

In January 1906, De Forest filed a patent for diode vacuum tube detector, a two-electrode device for detecting electromagnetic waves, a variant of the Fleming valve invented two years earlier. One year later, De Forest filed a patent for a three-electrode device that was a much more sensitive detector of electromagnetic waves. It was granted US Patent 879,532 in February 1908. The device was also called the De Forest valve, and since 1919 has been known as the triode. De Forest’s innovation was the insertion of a third electrode, the grid, between the cathode (filament) and the anode (plate) of the previously invented diode. The resulting triode or three-electrode vacuum tube could be used as an amplifier of electrical signals, notably for radio reception. The Audion was the fastest electronic switching element of the time, and was later used in early digital electronics (such as computers). The triode was vital in the development of transcontinental telephone communications, radio, and radar after Nikola Tesla’s and Guglielmo Marconi’s progress in radio in the 1890s, until the 1948 invention of the transistor.

De Forest had, in fact, stumbled onto this invention via tinkering and did not completely understand how it worked. De Forest had initially claimed that the operation was based on ions created within the gas in the tube when, in fact, it was shown by others to operate with a vacuum in the tube. The American inventor Irving Langmuir of General Electric Corp. was the first to correctly explain the theory of operation of the device, and also to significantly improve it.

 

In 1904, a De Forest transmitter and receiver were set up aboard the steamboat Haimun operated on behalf of The Times, the first of its kind.[3] On July 18, 1907, De Forest broadcast the first ship-to-shore message from the steam yacht Thelma. The communication provided quick, accurate race results of the Annual Inter-Lakes Yachting Association (I-LYA) Regatta. The message was received by his assistant, Frank E. Butler of Monroeville, Ohio, in the Pavilion at Fox’s Dock located on South Bass Island on Lake Erie. DeForest disliked the term “wireless”, and chose a new moniker, “radio”. De Forest is credited with the birth of public radio broadcasting when on January 12, 1910, he conducted experimental broadcast of part of the live performance of Tosca and, the next day, a performance with the participation of the Italian tenor Enrico Caruso from the stage of Metropolitan Opera House in New York City.[4] [5]

 

De Forest came to San Francisco in 1910, and worked for the Federal Telegraph Company, which began developing the first global radio communications system in 1912. California Historical Landmark No. 836 is a bronze plaque at the eastern corner of Channing St. and Emerson Ave. in Palo Alto, California which memorializes the Electronics Research Laboratory at that location and De Forest for the invention of the three-element radio vacuum tube.

 Middle years

The United States Attorney General sued De Forest for fraud (in 1913) on behalf of his shareholders, stating that his claim of regeneration was an “absurd” promise (he was later acquitted). Nearly bankrupt with legal bills, De Forest sold his triode vacuum-tube patent to AT&T and the Bell System in 1913 for the bargain price of $50,000.

De Forest filed another patent in 1916 that became the cause of a contentious lawsuit with the prolific inventor Edwin Howard Armstrong, whose patent for the regenerative circuit had been issued in 1914. The lawsuit lasted twelve years, winding its way through the appeals process and ending up before the Supreme Court in 1926. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of De Forest, although the view of many historians is that the judgment was incorrect.[6]

Radio pioneer

In 1916, De Forest, from experimental radio station 2XG in New York City, broadcast the first radio advertisements (for his own products) and the first Presidential election report by radio in November 1916 for Charles Evans Hughes and Woodrow Wilson. A few months later, DeForest moved his tube transmitter to Highbridge, Bronx. [7] Like Charles Herrold in San Jose, California — who had been broadcasting since 1909 with call letters “FN”, “SJN”, and then “6XF” — De Forest had a license from the Department of Commerce for an experimental radio station, but, like Herrold, had to cease all broadcasting when the U.S. entered World War I in April 1917. From April 1920 to November 1921, DeForest broadcast from station 6XC at the California Theater at Market and Fourth Streets in San Francisco. In late 1921, 6XC moved its transmitter to Ocean View Drive in the Rockridge section of Oakland, California and became KZY.[8][9]

Just like Pittsburgh’s KDKA four years later in November 1920, DeForest used the Hughes/Wilson presidential election returns for his broadcast. The New York American installed a private wire and bulletins were sent out every hour. About 2000 listeners heard The Star-Spangled Banner and other anthems, songs, and hymns. DeForest went on to sponsor radio broadcasts of music, featuring opera star Enrico Caruso and many other events, but he received little financial backing.

In April 1923, the De Forest Radio Telephone & Telegraph Company, which manufactured De Forest’s Audions for commercial use, was sold to a coalition of automobile makers, who expanded the company’s factory to cope with rising demand for radios. The sale also bought the services of De Forest, who was focusing his attention on newer innovations.[10] …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee_De_Forest

 

Reginald Aubrey Fessenden

“…Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (October 6, 1866 – July 22, 1932), a naturalized American citizen born in Canada, was an inventor who performed pioneering experiments in radio, including early—and possibly the first—radio transmissions of voice and music. In his later career he received hundreds of patents for devices in fields such as high-powered transmitting, sonar, and television. …”

“…The development of a rotary-spark transmitter was something of a stop-gap measure, to be used until a superior approach could be perfected. Fessenden felt that, ultimately, a continuous-wave transmitter—one that produced a pure sine wave signal on a single frequency—would be far more efficient, particularly because it could be used for quality audio transmissions. His design idea was to take a basic electrical alternator, which normally operated at speeds that produced alternating current of at most a few hundred hertz, and greatly speed it up in order to create electrical currents at tens of kilohertz. Thus, the high-speed alternator would produce a steady radio signal when connected to an aerial. Then, by simply placing a carbon microphone in the transmission line, the strength of the signal could be varied in order to add sounds to the transmission—in other words, amplitude modulation would be used to impress audio on the radio frequency carrier wave. However, it would take many years of expensive development before even a prototype alternator-transmitter would be ready, and a few more years beyond that for high-power versions to become available.

Fessenden contracted with General Electric to help design and produce a series of high-frequency alternator-transmitters. In 1903, Charles Proteus Steinmetz of GE delivered a 10 kHz version which proved of limited use and could not be directly used as a radio transmitter. Fessenden’s request for a faster, more powerful unit was assigned to Ernst F. W. Alexanderson, and in August, 1906 he delivered an improved model which operated at a transmitting frequency of approximately 50 kHz, although with far less power than Fessenden’s rotary-spark transmitters.

The alternator-transmitter achieved the goal of transmitting quality audio signals, but the lack of any way to amplify the signals meant they were somewhat weak. On December 21, 1906, Fessenden made an extensive demonstration of the new alternator-transmitter at Brant Rock, showing its utility for point-to-point wireless telephony, including interconnecting his stations to the wire telephone network. A detailed review of this demonstration appeared in The American Telephone Journal.[2]

A few days later, two additional demonstrations took place, which appear to be the first audio radio broadcasts of entertainment and music ever made to a general audience—maybe. (Beginning in 1904, the U.S. Navy had broadcast daily time signals and weather reports, but these employed spark transmitters, transmitting in Morse code). On the evening of December 24, 1906 (Christmas Eve), Fessenden used the alternator-transmitter to send out a short program from Brant Rock. It included a phonograph record of Ombra mai fu (Largo) by George Frideric Handel, followed by Fessenden himself playing the song O Holy Night on the violin. Finishing with reading a passage from the Bible: ‘Glory to God in the highest and on earth peace to men of good will’ (Gospel of Luke 2:14).[3] He petitioned his listeners to write in about the quality of the broadcast as well as their location when they heard it. Surprisingly, his broadcast was heard several hundred miles away, however accompanying the broadcast was a disturbing noise. This noise was due to irregularities in the spark gap transmitter he used.[4]

On December 31, New Year’s Eve, a second short program was broadcast. The main audience for both these transmissions was an unknown number of shipboard radio operators along the East Coast of the United States. Fessenden claimed that the Christmas Eve broadcast had been heard “as far down” as Norfolk, Virginia, while the New Year Eve’s broadcast had reached places in the Caribbean. Although now seen as a landmark, these two broadcasts were barely noticed at the time and soon forgotten— the only first-hand account appears to be a letter Fessenden wrote on January 29, 1932 to his former associate, Samuel M. Kinter.[3] There are no known accounts in any ships’ radio logs, nor any contemporary literature, of the reported holiday demonstrations.

(Broadcasting historian James E. O’Neal, in a series of articles on the Radio World website [5] ,[6] suggests that Fessenden, writing a quarter-century after the fact, may have confused the dates; O’Neal suggests Fessenden was remembering instead a series of tests he’d conducted in 1909.)

There is solid historical evidence, however, that Fessenden’s demonstrations of “wireless telephony” were well know at the time. Documentation of Fessenden’s demonstration of radio-transmitted voice is provided by a New York Time’s article, dated Sunday, September 1, 1907, titled: “Telephoning at Sea”. It announced that the “Navy Department is about to install wireless telephone apparatus on all battleships destined for the Pacific, this Fall. Practicable wireless telephony over a distance of five miles in all weathers is guaranteed by the company furnishing the instruments. Under favorable conditions, it is reported, a much greater distance for communication is possible.” The article accurately describes the science involved, saying: “The Hertzian waves will penetrate opaque substances, and the amplitude and intensity of the waves may be so varied as to reproduce faithfully the vibrations of the human voice.” The same article further states that: “recently, the Fessenden wireless system demonstrated the practicability of transmitting spoken words from a tall mast at Brent Rock to Plymouth, twelve miles away.” [7] Intense competition among developers of wireless technology, and the expectation of possible government contracts may have limited the scope of public promotion of the apparatus features and capabilities.

Fessenden’s broadcast foreshadowed of the future of radio. (Although primarily designed for transmissions spanning a few kilometers, on a couple of occasions the test Brant Rock audio transmissions were apparently overheard by NESCO employee James C. Armor across the Atlantic at the Machrihanish site). …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reginald_Fessendon

Edwin Howard Armstrong

“…Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18, 1890 – January 31, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor. Armstrong was the inventor of modern frequency modulation (FM) radio.

Edwin Howard Armstrong was born in New York City, New York, in 1890. He studied at Columbia University and later became a professor there. He invented the regenerative circuit while he was an undergraduate and patented it in 1914, the super-regenerative circuit (patented 1922), and the superheterodyne receiver (patented 1918).[2][3]

“…Work and patent disputes

Armstrong’s “feed back” circuit drawing, from Radio Broadcast vol. 1 no. 1 1922.

Howard Armstrong contributed the most to modern electronics technology. His discoveries revolutionized electronic communications. Regeneration, or amplification via positive feedback is still in use to this day. Also, Armstrong discovered that Lee De Forest’s Audion would go into oscillation when feedback was increased. Thus, the Audion could not only detect and amplify radio signals, it could transmit them as well.

While De Forest’s addition of a third element to the Audion (the grid) and the subsequent move to modulated (voice) radio is not disputed, De Forest did not put his device to work. Armstrong’s research and experimentation with the Audion moved radio reception beyond the crystal set and spark-gap transmitters. Radio signals could be amplified via regeneration to the point of human hearing without a headset. Armstrong later published a paper detailing how the Audion worked,[5] something De Forest could not do. De Forest did not understand the workings of his Audion.

Armstrong’s discovery and development of superheterodyne technology made radio receivers, then the primary communications devices of the time, more sensitive and selective. Before heterodyning, radio signals often overrode and interfered with each other. Heterodyning also made radio receivers much easier to use, rendering obsolete the multitude of tuning controls on radio sets of the time. The superheterodyne technology is still used today.

Armstrong is possibly best known for his discovery of wide-band frequency modulation. FM was born of a request by David Sarnoff of RCA as a means to eliminate static in radio reception. While Sarnoff was understandably impressed with Armstrong’s FM system, he also understood that it was not compatible with his own AM empire. Sarnoff came to see FM as a threat and refused to support it further.

Many of Armstrong’s inventions were ultimately claimed by others in patent lawsuits. In particular, the regenerative circuit, which Armstrong patented in 1914 as a “wireless receiving system,” was subsequently patented by Lee De Forest in 1916; De Forest then sold the rights to his patent to AT&T. Between 1922 and 1934, Armstrong found himself embroiled in a patent war, between himself, RCA, and Westinghouse on one side, and De Forest and AT&T on the other. At the time, this action was the longest patent lawsuit ever litigated, at 12 years. Armstrong won the first round of the lawsuit, lost the second, and stalemated in a third. Before the Supreme Court of the United States, De Forest was granted the regeneration patent in what is today widely believed to be a misunderstanding of the technical facts by the Supreme Court.[6]

By early 1923, Armstrong was a millionaire as a result of licensing his patents to RCA.[4]

In 1946 the FCC’s decision to use Armstrong’s FM system as the standard for NTSC television sound gave Armstrong another chance at royalty payments. However, RCA refused to pay royalties and encouraged other television makers not to pay them either. …”

…FM Radio

Even as the regenerative-circuit lawsuit continued, Armstrong was working on another momentous invention. While working in the basement laboratory of Columbia’s Philosophy Hall, he created wide-band frequency modulation radio (FM). Rather than varying the amplitude of a radio wave to create sound, Armstrong’s method varied the frequency of the wave instead. FM radio broadcasts delivered a much clearer sound, free of static, than the AM radio dominant at the time. (Armstrong received a patent on wide-band FM on December 26, 1933.[7]

In 1922, John Renshaw Carson of AT&T, inventor of Single-sideband modulation (SSB modulation), had published a paper in the Proceedings of the IRE arguing that FM did not appear to offer any particular advantage.[8] Armstrong managed to demonstrate the advantages of FM radio despite Carson’s skepticism in a now-famous paper on FM in the Proceedings of the IRE in 1936,[9] which was reprinted in the August 1984 issue of Proceedings of the IEEE.[10]

Today the consensus regarding FM is that narrow band FM is not so advantageous in terms of noise reduction, but wide band FM can bring great improvement in signal to noise ratio if the signal is stronger than a certain threshold. Hence Carson was not entirely wrong, and the Carson bandwidth rule for FM is still important today. Thus, both Carson and Armstrong ultimately contributed significantly to the science and technology of radio. The threshold concept was discussed by Murray G. Crosby (inventor of Crosby system for FM Stereo) who pointed out that for wide band FM to provide better signal to noise ratio, the signal should be above a certain threshold, according to his paper published in Proceedings of the IRE in 1937.[11] Thus Crosby’s work supplemented Armstrong’s paper in 1936.

Armstrong conducted the first large scale field tests of his FM radio technology on the 85th floor of RCA’s (Radio Corporation of America) Empire State Building from May 1934 until October 1935. However RCA had its eye on television broadcasting, and chose not to buy the patents for the FM technology.[12] A June 17, 1936, presentation at the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) headquarters made headlines nationwide. He played a jazz record over conventional AM radio, then switched to an FM broadcast. “[I]f the audience of 50 engineers had shut their eyes they would have believed the jazz band was in the same room. There were no extraneous sounds,” noted one reporter. He added that several engineers described the invention “as one of the most important radio developments since the first earphone crystal sets were introduced.”[13]

In 1937, Armstrong financed construction of the first FM radio station, W2XMN, a 40 kilowatt broadcaster in Alpine, New Jersey. The signal (at 42.8 MHz) could be heard clearly 100 miles (160 km) away, despite the use of less power than an AM radio station.[14]

RCA began to lobby for a change in the law or FCC regulations that would prevent FM radios from becoming dominant. By June 1945, the RCA had pushed the FCC hard on the allocation of electromagnetic frequencies for the fledgling television industry. Although they denied wrongdoing, David Sarnoff and RCA managed to get the FCC to move the FM radio spectrum from (42-50 MHz), to (88-108 MHz), while getting new low-powered community television stations allocated to a new Channel 1 in the 44-50 MHz range. In fairness to the FCC, the 42-50 MHz band was plagued by frequent tropospheric and E-layer stratospheric propagation which caused distant high powered stations to interfere with each other. The problem becomes even more severe on a cyclical basis when sunspot levels reach a maximum every 11 years and lower VHF band signals below 50 MHz can travel across the Atlantic Ocean or from coast to coast within North America on occasion. Sunspot levels were near their cyclical peak when the FCC reallocated FM in 1945. The 88-108 MHz range is a technically better location for FM broadcast because it is less susceptible to this kind of frequent interference. (Channel 1 eventually had to be deleted as well, with all TV broadcasts licensed at frequencies 54 MHz or higher, and the band is no longer widely used for emergency first responders either, those services having moved mostly to UHF.)

But the immediate economic impact of the shift, whatever its technical merit, was devastating to early FM broadcasters. This single FCC action would render all Armstrong-era FM receivers useless within a short time as stations were moved to the new band, and it also protected both RCA’s AM-radio stronghold and that of the other major competing networks, CBS, ABC and Mutual. Armstrong’s radio network did not survive the shift into the high frequencies and was set back by the FCC decision. This change was strongly supported by AT&T, because loss of FM relaying stations forced radio stations to buy wired links from AT&T.

Furthermore, RCA also claimed invention of FM radio and won its own patent on the technology. A patent fight between RCA and Armstrong ensued. RCA’s momentous victory in the courts left Armstrong unable to claim royalties on any FM receivers, including televisions, sold in the United States. The undermining of the Yankee Network and his costly legal battles brought ruin to Armstrong, by then almost penniless and emotionally distraught. Eventually, after Armstrong’s death, many of the lawsuits were decided or settled in his favor, greatly enriching his estate and heirs—but the decisions came too late for Armstrong himself to enjoy his legal vindication.

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Producing Talk And Voice-Overs–Videos

Posted on October 15, 2010. Filed under: Acoustics, Audio, Communications, Digital Communication, Loudspeakers, Radio, Recordings, Sound, Speech, Television | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , |

How to Set Up PA Systems : Basic Microphone Placement for PA System Setup

School radio studio tour

How a Radio Station Works : Radio DJ Microphone Placement

Audio-Technica Studio Recording Microphones w/ AVGIANT at NAMM

1. The production chain (in non-music production) generally begins with the talking performer and therefore involves considerations that relate to producing speech.

2. How speech is produced depends on (1) the type of program or production; (2) the medium–radio, TV, film–and, in TV and film, whether the production technique is single– or multicamera; (3) whether it is done in the studio ori n the field; and (4) whether it is live, live-on-tape, or produced for later release.

3. The frequency range of the human voice is not wide compared with that of other instruments. The adult male’s fundamental voicing frequencies are from roughly 80 to 240 Hz; for the adult female, they are from roughly 140 to 500 Hz. Harmonics and overtones carry theses ranges somewhat higher. (Ranges for the singing voice are significantly wider).

4. Speech intelligibilty is at a maximum when levels are about 70 to 90 dB-SP. Certain frequencies, particularly in the midrange, are also more critical to speech intelligibility than others.

5. Acoustical phase refers to the time relationship between two (or more) sound waves at a given point in their cycles. Electrical phase refers to the relative electrical polarity of two signals n the same circuit. When these waves or polarities are in phase–roughly coincident in time–their amplitudes are additive. When these waves or polarities are out of phase–not coincident in time–their amplitudes are reduced.

6. Evaluation of a microphone for speech includes at least four criteria: clarity, presence, richness, and versatility.

7. The closer a microphone is placed to a sound sources, the closer to the audience the sound source is perceived to be and the warmer, denser, bassier, drier, more intimate, and more detailed is the perceived sound.

8. The farther a microphone is placed from a sound source, the farther from the audience the sound source is perceived to be and the more distant, diffused, open, spacious, reverberant, and detached, and the less detailed is the perceived sound.

9. In selecting and positioning a mic, keep excessive sound that is reflected from room surfaces, furniture, and equipment from reaching the mic, or comb filtering can result. Choose a mic and position it to avoid sibilance, plosives, and breath sounds.

10. In monaural sound aural space is one-dimensional–measured in terms of depth–so perspective is near-to-far.

11. In stereo sound aural space is two-dimensional–measured in terms of depth and breadth–so perspectives are near-to-far and side-t0-side.

12. In stereo miking the angle or distance between the two microphones (or microphone capsules) determines side-to-side perspective. The smaller the angle or distance between the mics, the narrower the left-to-right stereo image; the larger the angle or distance, the wider the left-to-right image.

13. In disc jockey, interview, and panel programs, the participants should sound as though they are coming from the front and center of the aural space. With more than one participant, using individual microphones, the loudness levels for the participants must be similar if the sound is to be perceived as coming from the front and center of the aural space.

14. The overall sound of a radio station involves the particular music or talk format, the announcer’s delivery style, the production style of the spot announcements and jingles, and how tightly presented they all are.

15. The techniques used to mike speech for picture in television and film (and to produce sound, in general) may depend on whether the production is broadcast live, or live-on-tape, or is taped/filmed for showing at a later date.

16. In radio microphones can be placed anywhere without regard for appearance so long as the participants are comfortable and the mics do not get in their way. If the radio program is also televised, some care for appearance should be taken. In television, if a mic is in the picture, it should be good-looking and positioned so that it does not obscure the performer;s face. If it is not in the picture, it must be positioned close enough to the performer so that the sound is on-mic.

17. Generally, for optimal sound pickup the recommended placement for a mini-mic is in the area of the performer’s sternum, about 6 to 8 inches below the chin.

18. Hiding a mini-mic under clothing requires that the mic and mic cable are or can be made insensitive to rustling sounds and that the clothing be made of material that is less likely to make those sounds.

19. In television a desk mic is often used as a prop. If the desk mic is live, make sure it does not block the performer’s face, interfere with the performer’s frontal working space, pr pick up studio noises.

20.The handheld mic allows the host to control audience questioning and mic-to-source distance and, like the desk mic, helps generate a closer psychological rapport with the audience.

21. The boom microphone, like the mini-mic hidden under clothing, is used when mics must be out of the picture. Often one boom mic covers more than one performer. To provide adequate sound pickup, and to move the boom at the right time to the right place, the boom operator must anticipate when one performer is about to stop talking and another is to start.

22. Different techniques are used in controlling levels, leakage, and feedback of mic feeds from multiple sound sources: following the three-t0-one rule, moderate limiting or compression noise gating, or using an automatic microphone mixer.

23. If an audience is present, it must be miked to achieve an overall sound blend and to prevent one voice or group of voices from predominating.

24. Increasing audience laugher or applause, or both, by using recorded laugher or applause tracks adds to a program’s spontaneity and excitement.

25. Recording speech begins with good acoustics. Mediocre acoustics can make speech sound boxy, oppressive, lifeless, ringy, or hollow.

26. Recording speech generally involves either the voiceover–recording copy to which other sonic material is added–or dialogue. Voice-over material includes short-form material, such as spot announcements, and long-form material, such as documentaries and audiobooks.

27. Recording a solo performer and a microphone is a considerable challenge: there is no place to hide.

28. Among the things to avoid in recording speech are plosives, sibilance, breathiness, and tongue and lip smacks.

29. Three types of narration are direct, indirect, and contrapuntal.

30. It is often not so much what is said, but how is said that conveys the overall meaning of a message.

31. Voice acting involves “taking the words off the page” and making them believable and memorable.

32. Among the considerations a voice actor comes to grips with in bringing the appropriate delivery to copy are voice quality, message, audience, word values, and character.

33. Studio intercommunication systems are vital in coordinating the functions of the production team. Three types of studio intercom systems are the private line or phone line–PL; studio address–SA: and interruptible foldback–IFB.

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Unit 2 Part 2 Platforms of Advertising

Posted on July 20, 2010. Filed under: Advertising, Communications, Mass Media, Print Media, Radio, Television | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , |

Unit 2 Part 2_Platforms of advertising .ContentAttached Files

Major Methods of Advertising.rtf (7.517 KB)

Modern Advertising Methods.rtf (11.812 KB) .

Assignment Title: Unit 2_Part 2

Different platforms of advertising

Research the different forms of advertising-

-Radio

-Television

-Print (magazine, newspaper, flyers, mail advertising)

-Outdoor (billboard, building)

Read this article: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/different-types-of-advertising.html

Part 1: In your blog, discuss one advertisement on each of the four platforms that you encounter in a given day. Describe the ads themselves, what they make you think about and how they make you feel. If possible, include clips/ photos of the ads in your response. Due July 20, 2010 by 5 p.m.

View this assignment  with embedded videos and images on my Pronk Papers blog:

Unit 2 Part 2 Platforms of Advertising

Radio Advertisement

If you listen to talk radio, you have probably heard a commercial for Carbonite or seen one on the host’s web sites:

http://www.billbennett.com/

http://www.carbonite.com/comktg/signup.aspx?lp=57&sourcetag=Bennett_Banner1&cmpid=RA_Bennett_Banner1

http://www.glennbeck.com/

http://www.carbonite.com/comktg/signup.aspx?lp=33&sourcetag=Beck_Banner1&cmpid=RA_Beck_Banner1

http://www.rushlimbaugh.com/home/today.guest.html

http://www.carbonite.com/ads/rush/banner1.aspx?SourceTag=RushSite&cmpid=RA_Rush_1_Banner

http://www.lauraingraham.com/

http://www.carbonite.com/comktg/signup.aspx?lp=lauraingraham

What is distinctive about Carbonite commercials is that the radio talk show host weaves the Carbonite commercial into the show and the celebrity host gives a personal testimonial about the product and its benefits–automatic, secure, reliable and unlimited.

This  can be a little disconcerting at first, but definitely gets your attention and eventually you will go to the talk radio show’s site to check it out and get more information.

The following clips gives you a humorous example of this both on the radio and on television:

 

Ron & Fez: Carby and Little Carby for Carbonite, 5/12/09

Jimmy Kimmel on Carbonite

The listener to the talk show is directed to the Carbonite ad on the talk radio show’s web site where they can get additional information about the product or they can directly go to the Carbonite site:

http://www.carbonite.com/ads/ppc/Google/TM/ProductShot/signup.aspx?ppc_campaign=Branded_-_Phrase_-_US&ppc_group=TM_-_Correct_Spelling_Only_-_Ins&ppc_kwd=carbonite.&gclid=CO7iy-j3-qICFUcz5wod_BYg1Q

Any one who has a personal computer knows they fear the day their hard drive crashes.

Carbonite provides a relatively inexpensive way to protect yourself against the lost of data when you hard drive or computer crashes.

I feel that if I had Carbonite backup protection that all my data or files including videos, photos, music, databases, business records would be safely, securely, conveniently stored by Carbonite with multiple backups.

What is most attractive about the service is that it is done automatically for you in the background when you computer is on.

For many months I remembered the radio talk shows that I had heard the  Carbonite commercial for the computer online backup service, but simply could not remember the name of company, Carbonite.

This partially confirms what the late advertising legend, David Ogilvy said about celebrity testimonials, namely the viewers remember the celebrity while forgetting the product.

I say partially for I did remember both the celebrity and the product category, computer online backup, but I simple could not remember the company or brand name,  Carbonite.

That said, I knew I could quickly find the name by going to one of the talk radio show site above.

 

Background Information

Carbonite: Backup. Simple.

About Carbonite

“…Carbonite launched its Online PCBackup™ service in May 2006. Carbonite’s industry-first offer of unlimited backup space for a flat low price revolutionized the market for consumer and small business backup services. So far the company has backed up more than 2.5 billion files, has restored more than 160 million lost files for its customers and has a large data center where capacity is measured in petabytes. There are Carbonite users in nearly 100 countries.

Founded in 2005, Carbonite believes that computer users should not have to think about backup. The company’s mission is to provide an affordable, reliable, secure and easy-to-use solution for the mainstream computer user. Carbonite is available to consumers and small business through numerous channels, including its corporate Web site, major US retailers and international distributors. For more information, please visit http://www.carbonite.com. …”

http://www.carbonite.com/blog/?tag=/carbonite+online+backup

Carbonite (online backup)

“…Carbonite is an online backup service available to both Windows and Mac users that provides unlimited backup space to consumers and small businesses. It is named after carbonite, the substance used to freeze Han Solo in Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back.[1]

Carbonite was the first online backup company to offer unlimited backup space for a fixed price. Prior to Carbonite entering the market in early 2006, all online backup services were priced by the gigabyte.[2] Many other vendors have since changed to an unlimited model similar to Carbonite’s.[3]

Carbonite was named ‘Best Windows Backup Tool’ by Lifehacker,[4] ‘Labs Winner’ by PC Pro, ‘Editor’s Choice’ by NextAdvisor,[5] Hottest Boston Company by Lead411,[6] but received only ‘two mice’ in a MacWorld review putting it second to last.[7]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonite_(online_backup)

Carbonite Commercial 2009 – 1 of 4

 

Carbonite Commercial 2009 – 2 of 4

Carbonite Commercial 2009 – 4 of 4

Carbonite Online Data Backup Review

http://www.carbonite.com/ads/ppc/GOOG/OO1/signup.aspx?ppc_campaign=Backup_-_Broad_-_US&ppc_group=Gen_-_Computer_Option_-_Ins&ppc_kwd=computer_back_up_services&gclid=CLPwycXZ8KICFQ8hDQod-wg_pw 

Television Advertisement

The shaving cream brand, Barbasol, has a radio, television, print and online advertising campaign for its shaving cream products. If you listen to  Bill Bennett’s Morning In America talk show, that airs from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m Eastern Standard time, you have probably heard the Barbasol song that you also can hear and see in Barbasol Close Shave America video below:

Barbasol | “Close Shave America”

The lyrics of the thirty-second commercial are worth examining closely, pun intended.

The road is tough, your spirits strong, driving one and all,

Close shave America, close shave Barbasol.

America you are looking good, handsome, free and tall.

Close shave America, close shave Barbasol, close shave Barbasol.

The road is tough like a man’s beard or someone who has not shaved for a day or two.

Still the individual’s and country’s spirit is strong as you drive one and all of the roads of America.

The individual is identified with all the people of America in the phrase, “America you are looking good, handsome, free and tall.”

The suggestion is that the individual is like all the American people and you too can look good, handsome and tall provided you shave close with Barbasol shaving cream.

The commercial repeats the brand name, Barbasol, and tag line, Close Shave Barbasol, the benefit of the product, several times in the commercial.

The image of the product, a can of shaving cream,  is shown several times on the side and back of the truck, and on the table in the home.

A benefit tag line–BEARD BUSTER–is towards the top of can followed by the company brand name–Barbasol–and a second feature tag line–THICK & RICH SHAVING CREAM.

 

The videos also provides a web address or url, www.barbasol.com  for more information.

The ad makes me think about shaving and the need for a close shave and one of the products you would need to accomplish this– shaving cream–Barbasol.

When I go shopping for shaving cream, the product in that category that I think of first is Barbasol.

This is exactly what the advertiser wants to happen, namely being the first brand name product in the  product category cue or list.

The second name I think of is Colgate, followed by Gillette.

However, I usually buy Barbasol for it is the cheapest and best.

Subsequent shorter commercials reenforce this by making the consumer aware that Barbasol comes not only in the original flavor but in six other flavors and one designed for sensitive skin as well.

Also, if you want a close shave, you better buy Barbasol and not the other brands.

Barbasol Champ 

Barabasol – Close Shave “Baseball”

Barbasol – Sensitive Skin “Hockey”

Close Shave and All Better Get Barbasol

Each flavor has it own color for quick identification and the products are on the web site:

http://barbasol.com/product_landing.aspx

 

Barbasol shaving cream also comes in a small can for traveling to save on the space and weight (see photo of can above). 

This is a distinct benefit now that airlines are charging passengers for suitcases weighing more than a certain limit.

The Barbasol brand is usually the least expensive or lowest price shaving cream.

For those who prefer a shaving gel or a premium product,  the company has a brand extension, Barbasol Ultra:

Perio, the company who owns the Barbasol brand, also has a brand of shaving cream products targeted for woman Pure Silk:

http://barbasol.com/products.aspx?cid=3

Pure Silk shaving cream commercials are targeted for woman as illustrated in these commercials:

Pure Silk Shave Cream

 

Brittany Lincicome’s New Commercial – Pure Silk

I agree with the late advertising legend David Ogilvy who did not recommend using celebrities in advertising.

 His research found that the ads that use celebrity testimonials get below average results in their ability to change brand preference . Ogilvy stated that “Viewers have a way of remembering the celebrity while forgetting the product.” (see his classic book Ogilvy On Advertising, page 109).

However, Ogilvy thought that “the most effective testimonial commercials are those which show loyal users of your product testifying to its virtues-when they don’t know they are being filmed” (see his book Ogilvy On Advertising, page 105).

The Barbasol | “Close Shave America” commercial is much better than the Pure Silk commercial with celebrity golfer Brittany Lincicome. 

Perio, Inc. is a privately owned company that owns  the Barbasol and Pure Silk brand and is headquartered in Dublin, Ohio:

Made in America – Barbasol

For a close shave guys, better buy Barbasol,  and  gals, Pure Silk.

 

Print advertisement

eHarmony uses radio, online, television and print advertisements to attact customers to its date matching services:

http://www.eharmony.com/?ctk=1&cid=50601&aid=1001&kid=ZCO7

eHarnmony’s tag line is bringing good people together

eHarmony’s  Advice tag line is real people, real advice.

The focus of both is people and the formation of personal relationships.

It provides prospects of its service a free review of its service and if you are at their site a button to click on to “Get Matched For Free”.

In other words it gives you a taste by requiring you to first complete a extensive questionaire covering the 29 dimensions of compatability

The more time you spend at the site and get involved, the more likely you are going to try it the service at  least once.

Like most companies, eHarmony is trying to get you hooked or adicted to its date match services.

The company in its advertisements wants you to go to your computer and type in www.eharmony.com

Once there eHarmony is selling you their services.

I still remain skeptical and did not use their service.

 

eHarmony: bringing good people together

eHarmony Ad – Tanyalee & Johsua

eHarmony does remind me of a song from Fiddler On The Roof:

Fiddler on the roof – Matchmaker ( with subtitles )

 

 

Background Information

eHarmony

“…eHarmony is an online dating website which matches men and women with other singles. In addition to singles matching, eHarmony operates eHarmony Labs, a relationship research facility, and publishes eHarmony Advice, a relationship advice site. eHarmony, which was launched on August 22, 2000, is based in Pasadena, California and has operations in the U.S., Australia, Canada and the U.K. The company is privately-held, with investors that include Technology Crossover Ventures, Sequoia Capital and Fayez Sarofim & Co. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EHarmony

Outdoor advertisement

Half Price Books uses its company brand name and logo on its buildings and billboards:

 

The familiar white text on a red background gets your attention as you are driving past.

 

It is similar to a traffic stop sign which also has a red background and white letters in America.

 

However the Half Price Books sign makes me want to stop at the store and buy some books. 

I feel I am saving money by buying used books at a discount of at least 50% or more off the retail price.

What usually happens is I buy significantly more books than I would have if I had to pay the suggested retail price on book’s cover.

Since I enjoy reading, I have been a loyal customer of Half-Price Books for over twenty-five years and live only a few miles away from their main store.

The company name, Half Price Books, is also the main selling proposition and business model behind the chain of stores that were started in Dallas, Texas in 1972 and have now grown to over 100 stores in 15 states nationwide.

Store Locations

http://www.halfpricebooks.com/find_a_store.html

Their main store in Dallas is most likely the largest book store in the world and uses the company logo on the entrance to the store:

 

Half Price Books should seriously consider deleting the word RECORDS as fewer and fewer people are listening to music on this format.

The only thing I would change or add to the company logo and sign is that I would add the words CDs, GAMES and VIDEOS and delete the word RECORDS.

The bottom two lines would read CDs, GAMES/MAGAZINES, VIDEOS.

I seriously doubt the company will do this because of the expense of changing all the signs on their buildings and marketing material.

http://www.halfpricebooks.com/

The store sells these products as well as computer software, calendars, notebooks, and book related items.

The video below gives you a good idea of its store and customer reactions:

Extra 20% Off Everything Sale 

Great Opening at Half Price Books 

 
 

Background Information

Billboard Goes Down. 

Billboard Goes Up.

Part 2: Compose a 500-word essay comparing and contrasting modern advertising methods with traditional methods (read attached article “Modern Advertising Methods”). Focus on how advertising has changed and/or stayed the same. Post this essay in your blog by Thursday, July 22 at 5 p.m.

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Orson Welles–War of The Worlds–Videos

Posted on June 19, 2010. Filed under: Advertising, Communications, Mass Media, Radio, Recordings | Tags: , , , , |

 

Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 1)

Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 2)

Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 3)

Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 4)

Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 5)

Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 6)

Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 7)

Background Articles and Vidoes

 

War Of The Worlds radio spoof by Orson Wells

War of the Worlds Radio Documentary Part 1

War of the Worlds Radio Documentary Part 2

Orson Welles

“…George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985), best known as Orson Welles, was an American film director, writer, actor, and producer, who worked extensively in film, theatre, television and radio. Noted for his innovative dramatic productions as well as his distinctive voice and personality, Welles is widely acknowledged as one of the most accomplished dramatic artists of the twentieth century, especially for his significant and influential early work and despite his notoriously contentious relationship with Hollywood. His distinctive directorial style featured layered, nonlinear narrative forms, innovative uses of lighting and chiaroscuro, unique camera angles, sound techniques borrowed from radio, deep focus shots, and long takes. Welles’s long career in film is noted for his struggle for artistic control in the face of pressure from studios, which resulted in many of his films being severely edited and others left unreleased. He has thus been praised as a major creative force and as “the ultimate auteur.”[1]

Welles first found national and international fame as the director and narrator of a 1938 radio adaptation of H. G. Wells’s novel The War of the Worlds which, performed in the style of a news broadcast, was reported to have caused widespread panic when listeners supposedly thought that an extraterrestrial invasion was occurring. Although these reports of panic were mostly false,[2] they rocketed Welles to instant notoriety. Citizen Kane (1941), his first film with RKO, in which he starred in the iconic role of Charles Foster Kane, is often considered the greatest film ever made. Several of his other films, including The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), Touch of Evil (1958), Chimes at Midnight (1965), and F for Fake (1974), are also widely considered to be masterpieces.[3][4][5]

In 2002 he was voted the greatest film director of all time in the British Film Institute’s poll of Top Ten Directors.[6][7] Welles, who was also an extremely well regarded actor, was voted number 16 in AFI’s 100 Years… 100 Stars list of the greatest film actors of all time. He was also a celebrated Shakespearean stage actor and was well known for his baritone voice.[8]

Welles was also an accomplished magician, starring in troop variety shows in the war years. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orson_Welles

Related Posts On Pronk Palisades

When Radio Was–Videos

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Chapter 6–Radio

Posted on June 11, 2010. Filed under: Communications, Mass Media, Radio | Tags: , , , , |

 

1. Describe the effects that narrowcasting could have on the radio industry. Give specific examples.

Narrowcasting is the identification of a specific audience segment and programming for it.  Instead of broadcasting to the general public, the narrowcast is aimed or targeted to a specific audience. The effects of narrowcasting are that overall costs usually go down and the efficiency of advertising go up. Companies with specific products such as guns, cars, investments and health supplements can place their ads on the radio shows that cover these products and services.

Narrowcasting on radio includes radio shows on cars, health care, gardening, guns, politics, investments, real estate and sports. For example owners of gun and cars can listen to radio shows that focus or target gun and care owner audiences.

The Rise of Narrowcasting

“…The advancement of technology and the shift from industrial to information society has demassified production. Marketers are interested to satisfy the individual needs of each person as opposed to the need of society. In the filed of media this new trend of segmentation leads to narrowcasting. Narrowcasting acts as the binary opposite to the conventional (mass-audience) broadcasting. The three major broadcasting networks (ABC, NBC and CBS avoided programming content that might appeal only to a small segment of the mass population and succeeded in their goal by reaching nearly 90% (combined) of the television viewing audience on a regular basis (Massey, 2001 ). With the invention of narrowcasting individuals are able to view, read and listen to information that interests their personal needs and taste. Narrowcasting also enables marketers to categorize and target their advertisement easily to the specified demographic audience. While both consumers and producers seem to benefit from this new trend, narrowcasting has the tendency to weaken the perspective of individuals. ..”

http://ccit205.wikispaces.com/The+Rise+of+Narrowcasting

2. Compare Gordon McLendon’s formats of the 1950s to three of the most popular formats today. How are they similar? How are they different?

Gordon McLendon combined music and news into a radio show format with a predictable rotation of 20-minute segments. McLendon created the Top 40 format for music, which played the top-selling hits with brief interruptions by a disc jockey or a newscast.

Today, the most popular formats are  news/talk, country, and religious/teaching.

3. How has the Telecommunications Act of 1996 affected the industry? What changes has it brought about?

The Telecommunications Act of 1966 removed the limit on the number of radio stations a company could own and in local markets, the number of radio station a company could own was a function of the size of the market. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 also allows for radio and television  station cross-ownership as well as cable outlet in the same market. The result was more consolidation or concentration of ownership so that many companies now own more that 100 radio stations as well as television  stations and cable outlets.

The Telecommunications Act of 1966 led directly to the concentration of media ownership including the elimination of many local  independent and alternative media outlets and fewer broadcasting companies competing in regional markets.

Telecommunications Act of 1996

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telecommunications_Act_of_1996

4. What are some of the challenges involved with switching radio to digital audio broadcast? How will digital radio be better for listeners? Cite specific example from Chapter 8.

The challenges to switching  to digital audio broadcasting (DAB) include the cost of new broadcasting and receiving equipment (radios) and expanded program choices resulting in more competition for audiences and in turn advertisers. This means that should potential audiences become smaller, radio stations must compete with themselves.

Digital audio broadcast will be better for listeners for the audio quality and reception is much higher and more programs can be broadcast and received on a digital audio receiver or radio. Also additional information in the form of data and multimedia can be received as well. However, a DAB radio requires more power for portable radios.

Digital Audio Broadcasting Explained

 

DAB Digital Radio On Tomorrow’s World

DAB – The New Age Of Radio

Pure Move DAB Radio Review

 

Satellite digital radio will be better for listeners for it offers many more channels of programming with limited advertising on some stations and no advertising on others. However listeners of satellite digital radio must pay a monthly fee to hear uninterrupted programming. This service also requires the purchase of a radio with a small satellite radio receiver

 

DAB – The New Age Of Radio – Interviews

 

 

Digital radio

“…Digital radio describes radio technologies which carry information as a digital signal, by means of a digital modulation method. The most common meaning is digital audio broadcasting technologies, but the topic may also cover TV broadcasting, two-way digital wireless communication technologies, and radio delivered via the Internet. The acronym DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) is synonymous with the Eureka 147 standard. …”

“…United States

The United States has opted for a proprietary system called HD Radio(TM) technology, a type of in-band on-channel (IBOC) technology. Transmissions use orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, a technique which is also used for European terrestrial digital TV broadcast (DVB-T). HD Radio technology was developed and is licensed by iBiquity Digital Corporation. It is widely believed that a major reason for HD radio technology is to offer some limited digital radio services while preserving the relative “stick values” of the stations involved and to insure that new programming services will be controlled by existing licensees.

The FM digital schemes in the U.S. provide audio at rates from 96 to 128 kilobits per second (kbit/s), with auxiliary “subcarrier” transmissions at up to 64 kbit/s. The AM digital schemes have data rates of about 48 kbit/s, with auxiliary services provided at a much lower data rate. Both the FM and AM schemes use lossy compression techniques to make the best use of the limited bandwidth.

Lucent Digital Radio, USA Digital Radio (USADR), and Digital Radio Express commenced tests in 1999 of their various schemes for digital broadcast, with the expectation that they would report their results to the National Radio Systems Committee (NRSC) in December 1999.[3] Results of these tests remain unclear, which in general describes the status of the terrestrial digital radio broadcasting effort in North America. Some terrestrial analog broadcast stations are apprehensive about the impact of digital satellite radio on their business, while others plan to convert to digital broadcasting as soon as it is economically and technically feasible.[citation needed]

While traditional terrestrial radio broadcasters are trying to “go digital”, most major US automobile manufacturers are promoting digital satellite radio. HD Radio technology has also made inroads in the automotive sector with factory-installed options announced by BMW, Ford, Hyundai, Jaguar, Lincoln, Mercedes, MINI, Mercury, Scion, and Volvo. Beyond the U.S., commercial implementation of HD Radio technology is gaining momentum around the world.[4]

Satellite radio is distinguished by its freedom from FCC censorship in the United States, its relative lack of advertising, and its ability to allow people on the road to listen to the same stations at any location in the country. Listeners must currently pay an annual or monthly subscription fee in order to access the service, and must install a separate security card in each radio or receiver they use.

Ford and Daimler AG are working with Sirius Satellite Radio, previously CD Radio, of New York City, and General Motors and Honda are working with XM Satellite Radio of Washington, D.C. to build and promote satellite DAB radio systems for North America, each offering “CD quality” audio and about a hundred channels.[citation needed]

Sirius Satellite Radio launched a constellation of three Sirius satellites during the course of 2000. The satellites were built by Space Systems/Loral and were launched by Russian Proton boosters. As with XM Satellite Radio, Sirius implemented a series of terrestrial ground repeaters where satellite signal would otherwise be blocked by large structures including natural structures and high-rise buildings.

XM Satellite Radio has a constellation of three satellites, two of which were launched in the spring of 2001, with one following later in 2005. The satellites are Boeing (previously Hughes) 702 comsats, and were put into orbit by Sea Launch boosters. Back-up ground transmitters (repeaters) will be built in cities where satellite signals could be blocked by big buildings.

The FCC has auctioned bandwidth allocations for satellite broadcast in the S band range, around 2.3 GHz.

The perceived wisdom of the radio industry is that the terrestrial medium has two great strengths: it is free and it is local.[citation needed] Satellite radio is neither of these things; however, in recent years, it has grown to make a name for itself by providing uncensored content (most notably, the crossover of Howard Stern from terrestrial radio to satellite radio) and commercial-free, all-digital music channels that offer similar genres to local broadcast favorites. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_radio

 

5. Cite the landmarks in the development of the radio industry from 1835 to today. (See “Timeframe,” Chapter 8.) What did each development contribute to the evolution of the radio industry?

1835: Samuel F.B. Morse first demonstrates his electromagnetic telegraph system in America.

1899: Guglielmo Marconi first uses his wireless radio to report the America’s Cup race.

1907: Lee de Forest introduces the Audio tube, which improves the clarity of radio signal reception.

1920: Station KDKA in Pittsburg goes on the air as the nation’s first commercial radio station.

1934: Congress establishes the Federal Communications Commission to regulate broadcasting.

1936: Edwing H. Armstrong licenses frequency modulation (FM).

1938: Mercury Threater on the Air broadcasts “War of the Worlds”: demonstrating how quickly broadcast misinformation can cause a public panic.

1959: Gordon McLendon introduces format radio at station KABL in San Francisco.

1960: The Manhattan Grand Jury indicts disc jockey Alan Freed for payola.

1970: National Public Radio (NPR) goes on the air.

Background Information

Radio History

 

‘ON THE AIR’ 1937 – How Radio Works

Part 1 of 3 The Secret Life of the Radio

 

 

Part 2 of 3 The Secret Life of the Radio

 

Part 3 of 3 The Secret Life of the Radio

 

6. How did each of these people contribute to the evolution of American radio?

a. Guglielmo Marconi was an inventor who developed and promoted a radio telegraph system.

b. Reginald Fessenden experimented in radio and sent the first voice and music radio broadcast  on December 24, 1906

 c. Lee de Forest perfected a glass bulb he called the Audion that could detect radio waves and improved the clarity of radio signal reception

A small bit of Radio History, Lee De Forest Audion, Marconi

 

Background Information 

Guglielmo Marconi

 

Guglielmo Marconi

“…Guglielmo Marconi (Italian pronunciation: [ɡuʎˈʎɛːlmo marˈkoːni]; 25 April 1874– 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor, best known for his development of a radio telegraph system, which served as the foundation for the establishment of numerous affiliated companies worldwide. He shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun “in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy”[1][2][3] and was ennobled in 1924 as Marchese Marconi. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi

Reginald Fessenden

“…Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (October 6, 1866 – July 22, 1932) was a Canadian inventor who performed pioneering experiments in radio, including early—possibly the first— transmissions of voice and music. In his later career he received hundreds of patents for devices in fields such as high-powered transmitting, sonar, and television. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reginald_Fessenden

Lee De Forest

“…Lee De Forest (August 26, 1873 – June 30, 1961) was an American inventor with over 180 patents to his credit. De Forest invented the Audion, a vacuum tube that takes relatively weak electrical signals and amplifies them. De Forest is one of the fathers of the “electronic age”, as the Audion helped to usher in the widespread use of electronics. He is also credited with one of the principal inventions which brought sound to motion pictures.

He was involved in several patent lawsuits and he spent a substantial part of his income from his inventions on the legal bills. He had four marriages and 25 companies, he was defrauded by business partners, and he was once indicted for mail fraud, but was later acquitted.

He typically signed his name “Lee de Forest.”

He was a charter member of the Institute of Radio Engineers, one of the two predecessors of the IEEE (the other was the American Institute of Electrical Engineers).

DeVry University was originally named DeForest Training School, after Lee DeForest, by it’s founder Dr. Herman A. DeVry who was a friend and colleague of DeForest. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee_De_Forest

7. How did the Radio Act of 1912 set a precedent for American broadcasting?

Prior to 1911 there was no Federal regulatory authority over broadcasting. The Radio Act of 1912 created the Federal Radio Commission, the precursor to the Federal Communications Commission. The Federal Government was given more regulatory and enforcement powers over radio. The precedent was established that the airwaves were a public good and limited.

The Radio Act of 1912 required all amateur radio operators who wanted to broadcast or receive radio messages to be licensed. It also prohibited all amateur radio operators from transmitting over the main commercial and military frequencies.  The precedent of requiring all radio operators to be licensed applies to commercial radio stations that also must be licensed to broadcast their programs.

“…The Radio Act of 1912 is a United States federal law that required all seafaring vessels to maintain 24-hour radio watch and keep in contact with nearby ships and coastal radio stations. Part of the impetus for the act’s passage was the sinking of the RMS Titanic. Other factors included an ongoing conflict between amateur radio operators and the U.S. Navy and private corporations, that included the amateurs forging naval messages and issuing fake distress calls. The Wireless Ship Act of 1910 was seen as too weak to address the problems. The United States Congress considered six different proposals for replacing it in the period between 1910 and 1912, eventually enacting the 1912 Act.[1]

The act set a precedent for international and federal legislation of wireless communications. It was followed by the Radio Act of 1927.

The act required all amateur radio operators to be licensed and prohibited them from transmitting over the main commercial and military wavelengths. Amateurs were limited to transmitting signals that were below a wavelength of 200 meters. Besides being limited by wavelength, amateurs were also limited to location and operating hours.[2]

Implementing and enforcing the Act was the responsibility of the United States Secretary of Commerce and Labor. The United States Department of Commerce and Labor was empowered to impose fines and to revoke the licenses of those radio operators who violated the restrictions laid down by the Act.[1][3] …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Act_of_1912

8. How did the following developments in radio affect the industry?

a. Blanket licensing: radio stations agreed to pay the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) a fee in exchange for the use of all ASCAP-licensed music on the air.

b. Commercial sponsorship: radio stations sell advertising time to sponsors of radio programs to pay for the cost of broadcasting the program. Advertisers paid for programs directly through their advertising and in turn the American public paid for the programs indirectly by purchasing the goods and services of the advertisers.

c. Establishment of networks:A network is a collection of radio and television stations that broadcast programs, usually simultaneously. The establishment of networks provided a dependable source of programs and revenues.

9. Discuss the “War of the Worlds” broadcast and its effects upon its audience. How did it change people’s perceptions of radio?

The War of the Worlds was a radio drama based on H.G. Wells novel of The War of the Worlds that was broadcast on the CBS  radio network on October 31, 1938.

Many of the listeners actually believed that the planet was being attacked from outer space.

A captive audience with only one source of information can be temporarily fooled in believing something that appears credible. Many in the radio audience listening to the broadcast and who did not hear the disclosure that it was a fictional story, actually believed the nation was under attack.

The people’s perception of radio changed when they realized they could be fooled when they were a captive audience.

Orson Welles–War of The Worlds–Videos

The War of the Worlds

“…The War of the Worlds was an episode of the American radio drama anthology series Mercury Theatre on the Air. It was performed as a Halloween episode of the series on October 30, 1938 and aired over the Columbia Broadcasting System radio network. Directed and narrated by Orson Welles, the episode was an adaptation of H. G. Wells’ novel The War of the Worlds.

The first two-thirds of the 60-minute broadcast was presented as a series of simulated “news bulletins”, which suggested to many listeners that an actual alien invasion by Martians was currently in progress. Compounding the issue was the fact that the Mercury Theatre on the Air was a ‘sustaining show’ (it ran without commercial breaks), thus adding to the program’s verisimilitude. Although there were sensationalist accounts in the press about a supposed panic in response to the broadcast, the precise extent of listener response has been debated. In the days following the adaptation, however, there was widespread outrage. The program’s news-bulletin format was decried as cruelly deceptive by some newspapers and public figures, leading to an outcry against the perpetrators of the broadcast, but the episode secured Orson Welles’ fame.

Welles’ adaptation was one of the Radio Project’s first studies. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_War_of_the_Worlds_(radio)

10. Define each of the following terms:

a. average quarter-hour: the average number of people listening to a station in any given fifteen minute period.

 b. cume is the cumulative audience or the estimated number of people listening to a station for five minutes or more in any given fifteen time period.

c. rating is the percentage of the total population that a station is reaching. 

d. share is the percentage of people listening to the radio that a station is reaching.

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