Loudspeakers and Monitoring–Videos

Posted on October 8, 2010. Filed under: Acoustics, Audio, Loudspeakers, Psychacoustics, Web | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , |

 A look at the I key powerd studio monitors, M Series 606

Yamaha MSP5 Studio Monitors Reviewed


Main Points To Remember

1. Loudspeakers are transducers that convert electric energy into sound energy.

2. Loudspeakers area available in the moving-coil, ribbon, and capacitor designs. The moving-coil loudspeaker is by far the most common.

3. Loudspeakers that are powered externally are called passive speakers. Loudspeakers that are powered internally are called active speakers.

4. A single, midsized speaker cannot reproduce high and low frequencies very well; it is essentially a midrange instrument.

5. For improve response, loudspeakers have drivers large enough to handle the bass frequencies and drivers small enough to handle the treble frequencies. These drivers are called, informally, woofers and tweeters, respectively.

6. A crossover network separates the bass and the treble frequencies at the crossover point, or crossover frequency, and directs them to their particular drivers.

7. Two-way system loudspeakers have one crossover network, three-way system loudspeakers have two crossovers, and four-way system loudspeakers have three crossovers.

8. In a passive crossover network, the power amplifier is external to the speakers and precedes the crossover. In an active crossover network, the crossover precedes the power amps.

9. Each medium that records or transmits sound, such as a CD or a TV, and each loudspeaker that reproduces sound, such as a studio monitor or a home receiver, has certain spectral and amplitude capabilities. For optimal results audio should be produced with an idea of how the system through which it will be reproduced works.

10. In evaluating a monitor loudspeaker, frequency response, linearity, amplifier power, distortion, output-level capability, sensitivity, polar response, arrival time, and phase should also be considered.

11. Linearity means that frequencies being fed to a loudspeaker at a particular loudness are reproduced at the same loudness.

12. Amplifier power must be sufficient to drive the loud speaker system, or distortion, among other things, will result.

14. Distortion is the appearance of a signal in the reproduced sound that was not in the original sound. Various forms of distortion include intermodulation, harmonic, transient, and loudness.

15. Intermodulation distortion (IM) results when two or more frequencies occur at the same time and interact to create combinations tones and dissonances that are unrelated to the original sounds.

16. Harmonic distortion occurs when the audio system introduces harmonics into a recording that were not present originally.

17. Transient distortion relates to the inability of an audio component to respond quickly to a rapidly changing signal, such as that produced by percussive sounds.

18. Loudness distortion, or overload distortion, results when a signal is recorded or played back at an amplitude greater than the sound system can handle.

19. The main studio monitors should have an output-level capability of 110 dB-SP.

20. Sensitivity is the on-axis sound-pressure level a loudspeaker produces at a given distance when driven at a certain power. A monitor’s sensitivity rating provide a good overall indication of its efficiency.

21. Polar response indicates how a loudspeaker focuses sound at the monitoring position(s).

22. The coverage angle is the off-axis angle or point at which loudspeaker level is down 6 dB compared with the on-axis output.

23. A sound’s arrival time at the monitoring position(s) should be no more than 1 ms: otherwise, aural perception is impaired.

24. Where a loudspeaker is positioned affects-sound dispersion and loudness. A loudspeaker in the middle of a room generates the least-concentrated sound; a loudspeaker at the intersection of a ceiling or floor generates the most.

25. Stereo sound is two-dimensional; it has depth and breadth. in placing loudspeakers for monitoring stereo, it is critical that they be positioned symmetrically within a room to reproduce  an accurate and balance front-to-back and side-to-side sonic image.

26. Loudspeakers used for far-field monitoring are usually large and can deliver very wide frequency response at moderate to quite loud levels with relative accuracy. They are built into the mixing-room wall above, and at a distance several feet from, the listening position.

27. Near-field monitoring enables the sound engineer to reduce the audibility of control room acoustics, particularly the early reflections, by placing loudspeakers close to the monitoring position.

28. Surround sound differs from stereo by expanding the depth dimension, thereby placing the listener more in the center of the aural image than in front of it. Therefore, using the 5.1 surround-sound format, monitors are positioned front-left, center, and front-right, and the surround loudspeakers are placed left and right behind, or to the rear sides of, the console operator. A subwoofer can be positioned in front of, between the center and the left or right speaker, in a front corner or to the side of the listening position, Sometimes in the 5.1 surround set-up, two subwoofers may be `positioned to either side of the listening position.

29. In adjusting and evaluating monitor sound, objective and subjective measures are called for. Devices such as a spectrum analyzer measure the relationship  of monitor sound to room sound. Although part of testing a monitor loudspeaker involves subjectivity, there are guidelines for determining performance.

30. In evaluating the sound of a monitor loudspeaker it is helpful to, among other things, use material with which you are intimately familiar and to test various loudspeaker responses with different types of speech and music.

31. Headphones are an important part of monitoring particularly on location. Five considerations are vital in using headphones: (1) frequency response should be wide, flat, and uncolored; (2) you must be thoroughly familiar with the headphones’ sonic characteristics before you use them; (3) the headphones should be airtight against the head for acoustical isolation; (4) the fit should stay snug even when you are moving; and (5) stereo headphones should be used for monitoring surround sound.


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Sound Design–Videos

Posted on October 8, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Communications, Digital Communication, Movies, Music, Radio, Recordings, Sound Effects, Speech | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

WALL-E Special Features Animation Sound Design: Building Worlds From The Sound Up (Part 1)

WALL-E Special Features Animation Sound Design: Building Worlds From The Sound Up (Part 2)

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 1 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 2 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 3 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 4 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 5 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 6 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 7 of 7

A Tour of LA’s Village Recording Studio

Deep Recording Studios – The Tour

Deep Studios Industry Training – Sound Engineering

Main Points To Remember

1. Sound design is the process of creating the overall sonic character of a production and is ongoing throughout the production process.

2. The sound designer is responsible for creative control of the audio–to put a coherent sonic stamp on a production–although all members of the audio team make creative contributions to the sound.

3. There are three domains to work with in creating a sound design: speech, sound effects, and music. Paradoxically, silence and the ability of sound to evoke a picture in the mind’s eye may be considered two other domains.

4. All sound is made up of the same basic components: pitch, loudness, timbre, tempo, rhythm, attack, duration, and decay.

5. Sound also has a visual component in that it can create pictures in the “theater of the mind.”

6. Sound has several functions in relation to picture; Sound can parallel picture, sound can define picture, picture can define sound and picture can define effect, and sound can counterpoint picture.

7. There  is no set procedure for designing sound. At the outset the most important thing to do is study the script and analyze the auditory requirements line by line to determine the overall sonic approach to various scenes or for an entire work, or both.

8. Determining a sound design involves consideration of how the audience is to think or feel about a particular story, scene, character, or action; from what point of view; and whether that is to be carried out mainly in the sound effects or music or both.

9. Determining a sound design also requires the awareness that doing so is often tantamount to defining a production’s conceptual and emotional intent.

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Posted on October 7, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Communications, Ear, Radio, Sound, Television, Web | Tags: , , , |



Colour of Sound

Science of Sound

How Ear Works

Sound Waves and their Sources (1933)

Hertz and frequency response


Capturing audio

Audio file formats

The waveform


Key Main Points To Remember

1. Sound is elemental. It is integral to much of what we know and feel. It provides all sorts of cognitive and affective information.

2. Sound is a force: emotional, perceptual, and physical.

3. Sound is omnidirectional; it is everywhere. The human eye can focus on only one view at a time.

4. Sound, paradoxically, has a visual component; it can create pictures in the “theater of the mind.”

5. In the parlance of audio, having “ears” means having healthy hearing and the ability to listen perceptively.

6. The human ear is divided into three parts: the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear.

7. In the basilar membrane of the inner ear are bundles of microscopic hairlike projections called cilia attached to each sensory hair cell. They quiver at the approach of sound and begin the process of transforming mechanical vibrations into electrical and chemical signals, which are then sent to the brain.

8. Temporary threshold shift (TTS), or auditory fatigue, is a reversible desensitization in hearing caused by exposure to loud sound over a few hours.

9. Prolonged exposure to loud sounds can bring on tinnitus, a ringing, whistling, or buzzing in the ears.

10. Exposure to loud sound for extended periods of time can cause permanent threshold shift–a deterioration of the auditory nerve endings in the inner ear. In the presence of loud sound, use an ear filter (hearing-protection device)designed to reduce loudness.

11. Humans have the potential to hear an extremely wide range of loudness between the threshold of hearing and the threshold of pain.

12. Having educated ears means the ability to listen with careful discrimination to style, interpretation, nuance, and technical quality in evaluating the content, function, characteristics, and fidelity of sound.

13. Learning how to listen begins with paying attention to sound wherever and whenever it occurs.

14. Analytical listening is the evaluation of the content and function of sound.

15. Critical listening is the evaluation of the characteristics of the sound itself.

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