Public Relations

Survey of Broadcasting: Assignment 2: Question 6. Describe and define one theory about media impact.

Posted on June 30, 2011. Filed under: Broadcasting, Communications, Communications Theory, Mass Communications, Mass Media, Media Effects, Public Relations | Tags: , , , , , , , |

Three theories concerning the effects or impact of mass media have evolved over time:

  1. Hypodermic Needle Theory: an early theory that posits that mass communications messages would have a strong and predictable effect on an audience member. The theory held that all people would more or less have the same reaction to a mass communication message.
  2. Limited-Effects Theory: a latter theory that posits that media have few direct and meaningful effects on the audience because of a variety of intervening variables. A mass communication message would have little impact.
  3. Specific-Effects Theory: a recent theory that posits that there are certain circumstances under which some types of media will have a significant effect on some audience members.

The hypodermic needle theory was given much credence due to the apparent success of propaganda before and after World War I and the fact that many people believed the radio show War of the Worlds was in fact reality and the success of Dr. Brinkley’s radio show selling patent medicines and cures for various aliments.

However, by the mid-1940s the hypodermic needle theory’s assumptions were called into question by experimental and survey  research.

The limited effects theory focused on persuasion and political campaigns.  Mass communication messages first influenced people known as opinion leaders and then flowed on to the rest of the audience. Research posited that media’s influenced people known as opinion leaders and then flowed on to the rest of the audience.

Research posited that media’s influence or impact was first filtered through a strainer of intervening variables, such as a person’s knowledge and beliefs and the influence of family, friends and peer groups.  According to the limited effects theory, mass communications are simply one of many determinants of how an individual behaves.

Joseph Klapper’s book The Effects of Mass Communication summarizes the existing research with the generalization that mass communications does not ordinarily cause audience effects but instead functions primarily to reinforce existing conditions.

Klapper also noted that there are occasions when mass communications could exert a direct effect and where mediating factors reinforce change or when  mediating  factors are absent.

The mediating factors include the following:

  1. The exercise of opinion leadership
  2. The norms of groups to which the audience members belong
  3. The nature of mass media in a free enterprise economy
  4. Interpersonal dissemination of the content of communication
  5. Predispositions and the related processes of selective exposure and selective perception and retention.

Klapper considered that the two main intervening or mediating factors were selective exposure or people’s tendency to expose themselves to those mass communications which are in agreement with their attitudes and interests and 
selective perception and retention or people’s inclination to organize the meaning of mass communication messages in accordance with their already existing views.

Most recent research on the impact or effects of mass communications tends to support the specific effects theory. Mass-media communications must compete with many other sources of influence such as family, friends, teachers, ministers and many others.

However, there are circumstances where specific types of media content may have a significant effect on a portion of the audience.

Harold Lasswell described the formula as follows:

“Who (says) What (to) Whom (in) What Channel (with) What Effect.?”

Bernard Berelson succinctly summarizes the specific-effects theory of communication:

 “Some kinds of communication, on some kinds of issues, brought to the attention of some kinds of people, under some kinds of conditions, have some kinds of effects.”

Background Articles and Videos

Mass Communication : The Hypodermic Theory of Mass Communication

Mass Communication : Why Is Persuasion Important in Mass Communication?

Mass Communication : Effects of Technology on Mass Communication

Media Effects

Selective exposure theory

“…Selective exposure theory is a theory of communication, positing that individuals prefer exposure to arguments supporting their position over those supporting other positions. As media consumers have more choices to expose themselves to selected medium and media contents with which they agree, then tend to select content that confirms their own ideas and avoid information that argues against their opinion. People don’t want to be told that they are wrong and they do not want their ideas to be challenged either. Therefore, they select different media outlets that agree with their opinions so they do not come in contact with this form of dissonance. Furthermore, these people will select the media sources that agree with their opinions and attitudes on different subjects and then only follow those programs.

Foundation of theory

 Propaganda study

 The Evasion of Propaganda

When prejudiced people confront anti-prejudice propaganda involuntarily, even though they might avoid the message from the first time, the process of evasion would occur in their mind. Cooper and Jahoda (1947) studied how the anti-prejudice propaganda can be misunderstood by prejudiced people. When the prejudiced reader confronted the Mr. Biggott cartoon, which contained anti-minority propaganda, their effort to evade their feelings and understand Mr. Biggott’s identification with their own identity would bring about misunderstanding. This kind of evasion occurs because of what individuals often face to accomplish uniformity in everyday life. There is a fear to be isolated from what they belong and also threat for shivering their ego. Therefore, the concept of selective exposure was in the same thread with small effect studies in mass communication in 1940s.

Cognitive dissonance theory

Before the selective exposure theory was put forward, Festinger(1957) published a book, Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, and explained the cognitive dissonance theory, which assumes that all human beings pursue consistency in their mind.

  • Basic Hypotheses
    • It is a state of mental unease and discomfort which helps explain selective perception. It is produced when new information contradicts existing beliefs, attitudes, social norms, or behaviors.
    • Many times people favor consonance because their ideas flow freely into one another and do not create an unbalance. [2]
    • The existence of dissonance, being psychologically uncomfortable, will motivate the person to try to reduce the dissonance and achieve consonance.
    • When dissonance is present, in addition to trying to reduce it, the person will actively avoid situations and information that would likely increase the dissonance. [3]

Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory, which was one of the roots of selective exposure, explained people’s effort to reduce their dissonance of something against their existing beliefs. Nonetheless, his theory was broad enough to be elucidated in general social behavior, not just for selecting medium and media contents. Festinger suggested situations that increase dissonance. Firstly, logical inconsistency brings about dissonance. If a person who believes it is not possible to build a device to leave Earth’s atmosphere observes man reach the moon, their belief and experience are dissonant with each other. Secondly, cultural morals entail dissonance. A person picks up a chicken bone with their hands, and it is dissonant with what they believe is formal etiquette. At this point, culture defines what is consonant and what is dissonant. Thirdly, if specific opinion is included in a more general opinion, dissonance should be followed. A person, who has been Democrat, prefers Republican candidates for certain election. This situation creates dissonance, because “Being a Democrat” needs to be attributed to favoring Democratic candidates. Lastly, past experience causes dissonance. If a person is standing in the rain, but is not wet, these two cognitions would be dissonant, because they might know standing in the rain leads to getting wet through past experience. Festinger (1957) also suggests the ways of reducing dissonance. For reducing dissonance, one may change a behavioral cognitive element or change an environmental cognitive element. However, sometimes, behavior change and environmental change do not help reducing dissonance. Festinger, then, suggested adding new cognitive elements. If people cannot reduce dissonance, they might seek new information, which is consonant with their beliefs or attitude; therefore, people might actively seek new information that would decrease dissonance and avoid new information that would increase dissonance. This third explanation of reducing dissonance is similar with selective exposure, which mass communication reinforces the existing opinion.

    • Another example of the Cognitive Dissonance Theory can be found in the article entitled, “Theories of Persuasion,” by Daniel J. O’Keefe. It describes the different theories of persuasion and how media outlets use them to their advantage to influence their audience. The author’s example is that people donate to the Red Cross because they believe in what it stands for which represents consonance. However, on the other hand, the author suggests that a person who smokes and also believes it causes cancer, would be an example of dissonance and hypocrisy. Many times people try to sway against dissonance because it puts them in an uncomfortable position. Therefore, these feelings of consonance and dissonance lead to the “Selective Exposure Theory” because some believe that people will select the media sources that agree with their opinions and attitudes on different subjects and then only follow those programs. [4]

 Klapper’s selective exposure

Joseph Klapper (1960) considered mass communication do not directly influence people, but just reinforce people’s predisposition. Mass communications play a role as a mediator in persuasive communication.

  • Klapper’s five mediating factors and conditions to affect people
    • Predispositions and the related processes of selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention.
    • The groups, and the norms of groups, to which the audience members belong.
    • Interpersonal dissemination of the content of communication
    • The exercise of opinion leadership
    • The nature of mass media in a free enterprise society. [5]
  • Three basic concepts
    • Selective exposure – people keep away from communication of opposite hue.
    • Selective Perception – If people are confronting unsympathetic material, they do not perceive it, or make it fit for their existing opinion.
    • Selective retention – Furthermore, they just simply forget the unsympathetic material.

Groups and group norms work as a mediator. For example, one can be strongly disinclined to change to the Democratic Party if their family has voted for Republican for a long time. In this case, the person’s predisposition to the political party is already set, so they don’t perceive information about Democratic Party or change voting behavior because of mass communication. Klapper’s third assumption is inter-personal dissemination of mass communication. If someone is already exposed by close friends, which creates predisposition toward something, it will lead increase of exposure to mass communication and eventually reinforce the existing opinion. Opinion leader is also a crucial factor to form predisposition of someone, lead someone to be exposed by mass communication, and after all, existing opinion would be reinforced. Nature of commercial mass media also leads people to select certain type of media contents. Klapper (1960) claimed that people are selecting entertainment, such as family comedy, variety shows, quizzes, and Westerns, because of nature of mass media in a free enterprise society.

Selective exposure in entertainment theory perspective

Selective exposure is an instinctive activity of human beings. Early human beings needed to be sensitive to the sounds of animals. This kind of exposure was closely related with their survival from an external threat. Survival is still a very crucial matter for human beings; however, selective exposure is also important for human beings for other purposes, such as entertainment.

“Selective exposure designates behavior that is deliberately performed to attain and sustain perceptual control of particular stimulus events.”

Zillmann and Bryant, 1985[6]

 Affective-dependent theory of stimulus arrangement

Zillmann and Bryant (1985) developed affective-dependent theory of stimulus arrangement in the chapter of their edited book, Selective exposure to communication.

  • Basic Assumptions
    • people tend to minimize exposure to negative, aversive stimuli
    • people tend to maximize exposure to pleasurable stimuli.

After all, people try to arrange the external stimuli to maintain their pleasure, which ultimately let people select certain affect-inducing program, such as music, movie, or other entertainment program. In other words, people manage their mood by selecting certain kind of entertainment to exposure themselves; mood management theory was also rooted by this affective-dependent theory.

Furthermore, people will select media based on their moods. An example of this is if a person is happy they would probably select a comedic movie. If they are bored they might choose action and if they are sad they might select tragedy or a depressing romance. These attitudes and moods also convince people to watch different news outlets based on how they feel. People with conservative beliefs tend to watch Fox news and Democrats usually watch MSNBC.

  • Examples:

1**A person with liberal beliefs, who comes home from a hard day at work will probably turn on MSNBC. They would not be in the mood to fight with a news station that has conservative beliefs constantly being portrayed. 2**A woman who just broke up with her boyfriend would probably not be in the mood to watch a romantic movie and would therefore tend to pick a movie that falls into the genre of tragedy.

Selective exposure processes in mood management

    • Excitatory Homeostasis – Tendency of individuals to choose entertainment to achieve an optimal level of arousal.
    • Intervention Potential – Ability of a message to engage or absorb an aroused individual’s attention or cognitive-processing resources.
    • Message-Behavioral Affinity – Communication that has a high degree of similarity with affective state.
    • Hedonic Valence – Positive or negative nature of a message. [7]

Critiques

  • Possible influence by factors other than a person’s emotional state.
  • Difficulty to measure long-term effect.
  • Overlook the importance of cognitive processes.
  • Not suit for information and education media.
  • Possibility that negative stimuli provide enjoyment by overcoming it.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_exposure_theory

Harold Lasswell

“…Harold Dwight Lasswell (February 13, 1902 — December 18, 1978) was a leading American political scientist and communications theorist. He was a member of the Chicago school of sociology and was a professor at Yale University in law. He was a President of the American Political Science Association (APSA) and World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS). According to a biographical memorial written by Gabriel Almond at the time of Lasswell’s death and published by the National Academies of Sciences in 1987, Lasswell “ranked among the half dozen creative innovators in the social sciences in the twentieth century.” At the time, Almond asserted that “few would question that he was the most original and productive political scientist of his time.” Areas of research in which Lasswell worked included the importance of personality, social structure, and culture in the explanation of political phenomena. He was noted to be ahead of his time in employing a variety of methodological approaches that later became standards across a variety of intellectual traditions including interviewing techniques, content analysis, para-experimental techniques, and statistical measurement.

He is well known for his comment on communications:

Who (says) What (to) Whom (in) What Channel (with) What Effect

and on politics:

Politics is who gets what, when, and how.

and on aberrant psychological attributes of leaders in politics and business:

Psychopathology and Politics

Lasswell studied at the University of Chicago in the 1920s, and was highly influenced by the pragmatism taught there, especially as propounded by John Dewey and George Herbert Mead. More influential, however, was Freudian philosophy, which informed much of his analysis of propaganda and communication in general. During World War II, Lasswell held the position of Chief of the Experimental Division for the Study of War Time Communications at the Library of Congress. He analyzed Nazi propaganda films to identify mechanisms of persuasion used to secure the acquiescence and support of the German populace for Hitler and his wartime atrocities. Always forward-looking, late in his life, Lasswell experimented with questions concerning astropolitics, the political consequences of colonization of other planets, and the “machinehood of humanity.”

Lasswell’s work was important in the post-World War II development of behavioralism.

Major works

  • Propaganda Technique in the World War (1927; Reprinted with a new introduction, 1971)
  • Psychopathology and Politics, (1930; reprinted, 1986)
  • World Politics and Personal Insecurity (1935; Reprinted with a new introduction, 1965)
  • Politics: Who Gets What, When, How (1935)
  • “The Garrison State” (1941)
  • Power and Personality (1948) …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Lasswell

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Discussion #4: Jumping To Conclusions About Shirley Sherrod

Posted on August 7, 2010. Filed under: Communications, Ethical Practices, Ethics, Issues, Law, Mass Media, News, Policies, Politics, Print Media, Public Relations, Radio, Recordings, Television |

The following situation could be an issue you, as a PR Representative or Advertising associate, might have to deal with. In case you have been living under a rock the past few weeks, here is some info:
Below are some background videos:

 Ag Secretary Offers to Hire Back Ousted Worker

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nAsJS_E8EKE&hl=en_US&fs=1

Robert Gibbs on Shirley Sherrod: Mistakes Were Made

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bA18AEXQkNQ&hl=en_US&fs=1

Shirley Sherrod explains racial remarks

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KosReihC8Ts

USDA Reconsiders Employee’s Job Over Race Remark

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iV0u2RwwoIM&hl=en_US&fs=1

Shirley Sherrod Defended by White farmers Wife; Eloise & Rodger Spooner

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XEGp2ni6B1I&hl=en_US&fs=1

White farmers at the center of Shirley Sherrod controversy: ‘No way in the world’ she is a racist.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUcH0ABKDII&hl=en_US&fs=1

shirley sherrod reveals her past racism

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WrNWw7TGkjo&hl=en_US&fs=1

Andrew Breitbart Defends Shirley Sherrod Story

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2kMfCAoVPx0&hl=en_US&fs=1

Krauthammer on Shirley Sherrod

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZeTVQE45ko&hl=en_US&fs=1

John King-Andrew Breitbart Shirley Sherrod Interview, Part I

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rU2igzWD5Ms&hl=en_US&fs=1

John King-Andrew Breitbart Shirley Sherrod Interview, Part II

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sVs_dyguHBY&hl=en_US&fs=1

Politics of Race: NAACP vs. Tea Party

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XkOc8ZKYUeQ&hl=en_US&fs=1

 NAACP Says Tea Party is Racist…

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eY4dyCiP9b4&hl=en_US&fs=1

Black USDA Official Caught Making Racist Remarks About White Farmers !!!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ahot8jCeaGU&hl=en_US&fs=1

Glenn Beck-07/20/10-A

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bTAm4tBN1mU&hl=en_US&fs=1

Glenn Beck-07/20/10-B

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9W9UokKAzAM&hl=en_US&fs=1

Glenn Beck-07/20/10-C

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=obUd4BWpMeQ&hl=en_US&fs=1

Glenn Beck-07/20/10-D

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v5yJEPTWG_M&hl=en_US&fs=1

What is your response to this incident? This is a “safe space” to discuss. In return, I request your responses not be in “attack mode” towards anyone else.
If you worked on the Ag Secretary’s team, how would you respond to this situation?
GOOD SUGGESTION RAYMOND!! ALSO_thanks for the research!
-Dusty

 

When an employee is accused of racisim, it is always good policy to first check that the complete context and all of the facts of the situation are detailed in  a written report and the written report be fully coordinated with all appropriate departments including human resources and legal.

The person accused of racism should always be given an opportunity to explain their side of the situation.

Had this be done, none of the bad publicity from this case would have taken place for clearly Sherrod should not have been asked to resign.

Once the mistake had been made of asking for her resignation, the Secretary of Agriculture, finally did the right thing and made a public apology and an offer to rehire her.

The Secretary of Agriculture and The President Of The United States were poorly served by the staff members who initiated this firing or forced resignation.

Panicing and jumping to conclusions only leads to more problems.

One should not respond to blog posts, videos on YouTube or television commentary without first being sure of the facts in the case.

Panicing and jumping to conclusions only leads to more problems.

Glenn Beck was right, context is very important.

Andrew Breitbart should have waited until he got the complete tape from his source.

I suspect he was being set up when his source only gave him part of the video.

Brietbart should have suspected this and held the video until his source provided him with the complete video.

Apparently the NAACP had the complete video.

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Unit 6–Part 2-Careers in Advertising

Posted on August 6, 2010. Filed under: Advertising, Books, Communications, Digital Communication, Ethics, Issues, Magazines, Mass Media, News, Newspapers, Politics, Print Media, Public Relations, Radio, Television, Web, Web Banner | Tags: , , , , , , , , |

 

PART 2 Careers in Advertising. THIS IS YOUR FINAL
 
Review the following link:
For this assignment, you will find one person who works in advertising and interview them. Find out their background, why they chose advertising, what they studied in college, and a full job description. You will write a 1,200-word report on this person from the information you have gathered. Be sure to include in your report their name and where this person works. 
This assignment is due Thursday, August 12 at NOON!
 I WILL NOT ACCEPT ANY LATE ASSIGNMENTS PAST noon on Thursday, August 12. I will be turning in grades on Friday at 8 a.m. and will not be able to change your grade after that.

How To Get A Job In Advertising

 Matryoshka Dolls with Olga & Dema

 

“When you are appointed to head an office in the Ogilvy & Mather chain, I send you one of these Russian dolls. Inside the smallest you will find this message: ‘If each of us hires people who are smaller than we are, we shall become a company of dwarfs, but if each of us hires people who are bigger than we are, Ogilvy & Mather will become a company of giants.’:

~David Ogilvy, Ogilvy On Advertising, page 46.

 

 

A conversation about advertising, with David Ogilvy

David Ogilvy interviewed by John Crichton in 1977. Realized by the American Association of Advertising Agencies AAAA. David is seen as the “pope of advertising”. This is the complete interview version.

While in the past I have never considered a career in advertising, I recently read the late David Ogilvy’s books, Confessions of An Advertising Man and Ogilvy On Advertising to learn more about career opportunities in advertising and advertising agencies.

 

 

 I highly recommend reading both books for any one interested in a career in advertising or mass communications and for business owners and executives interested in growing their businesses.

David Ogilvy started his own advertising agency in 1948.

Today Ogilvy & Mather is one of the top ten marketing communication firms worldwide and employs over 15,000 people in 450 offices around the world with a tradition  for training and developing their talent. Ogilvy & Mather is part of the WPP family of companies.

Ogilvy & Mather

http://www.ogilvy.com/Careers.aspx

According to Ogilvy advertising offers four different career paths:

  1. You can join a television network, a radio station, a magazine or a newspaper and sell time or space to advertisers and their agencies.
  2. You can join a retailer like Sears Roebeck, and work as a copywriter, art director or advertising manager.
  3. You can join a manufacturing company like Procter & Gamble, and work as a brand manager.
  4. You can join an advertising agency.

Source: Ogilvy On Advertising, page 31.

I would most likely pursue the career path of working for a leading advertising agency such as the following:

All of the above advertising agencies are owned by British marketing giant WPP http://www.wpp.com/wpp/companies/

WPP http://www.wpp.com/wpp/

Since I live in Dallas, Texas I would also be interested in working for a local Dallas advertising agency such as the Richards Group http://www.richards.com/index.html# or the local Dallas office of ReachLocal http://reachlocal33-px.rtrk.com/ .

There are several jobs in advertising agencies including the following:

  1. Account executive
  2. Art director
  3. Copywriter
  4. Creative director
  5. Media director
  6. Researcher/Analyst
  7. Program Director

Actual job or position descriptions from the Ogilvy & Mather web site are provided at the end of this essay.

With over twenty years of experience in the financial services industry, sales, and running my own firm, the positions that most interested me are account executive, copywriter, researcher/analyst and program director.

An account executive or in earlier times the contact man is responsible for representing the agency to the client and getting the best possible work from the various agency departments for the client.

A copywriter is responsible for writing interesting prose for print media and dialogue for broadcast media ( television and radio).

Media director is responsible for all aspects of client’s media services.

A researcher/analyst conducts surveys, writes reports and provides answer to questions.

Market research is information on the market, competition, prospects, distribution and pricing.

Advertising research is information directly related to an advertising campaign including the development, pretesting, and evaluation of the actual advertising campaign or materials.

A program director is responsible for assembling and managing teams to deliver work.

Since I do not know anybody that works in an advertising agency to interview, I decided to first interview Marshall Siegel, the Advertising Advisor for Richland College, School of Human & Academic Development, who has over thirty-seven experience in advertising  with a trade magazine publisher where he had numerous positions in all departments except media. 

Marshall Siegel is a graduate of the University of Missouri, School of Journalism. After college, his first job was with the Chicago Tribune, formerly self-styled as the “World’s Greatest Newspaper” (for which WGN radio and television is named). When the Korean War broke out, he was called up by the U.S. Army and served in Korea as a private first class. Siegel subsequently joined the Army Reserves and retired years latter as a Major.

After completing his active duty military service, he returned to the Chicago Tribune.  At the time he was paid only $35 per week and decided for financial reasons to take a higher paying position selling advertising space for a firm that publishes trade magazines.

After thirty-seven years with the trade magazine publishing company, the company was sold to a British firm for forty million dollars in cash.

Siegal retired soon thereafter when the British firm wanted one of their executives to manage the company.

Siegel now assists students at Richland College as an advertising and writing coach and as Advertising Advisor to Richland College. When advertisers want to post their ads on the Richland College campus, he is the person you go to get your ad approved and stamped. Place you ads only on cement walls and be sure to take them down after two weeks!

He loves owning and driving Porsches and carries photos of his “babies” in his wallet.

Siegel recommended that with my financial services and sales background I approach an advertising agency about selling advertising of financial publications to prospects and clients of the advertising agency.

He suggested I go to the main library in Plano or Dallas and look up the names of the agencies that I was interested in working for in the Advertising Red Books to determine who the advertising agency’s clients were.

 

“…The Advertising Redbooks Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies January Edition (S11) 2010

Each Volume 1 Advertisers $ 1495.00 AS LISTED TO BE ORDERED FROM THIS SECTION
Each Volume II AGENCIES $1495.00
CD-ROM; CONTAINS Both These Volumes is $1995.00

PLEASE CALL AT 905 946 9588 OR EMAIL US at sales@ippbooks.com

The Advertising Redbooks’ defines useful agency-to-advertiser relationships for prospecting and competitive intelligence research. …”

 http://www.ippbooks.com/store/advertising-red-book-advertising-agencies-of-the-usa.html

Siegel also recommended that I obtain for selected financial publications their advertising rates from the SDRS directory at the library:

“…”For 90 years, SRDS has built and maintained the largest and most comprehensive database of media rates and data in the world, including:

-Magazines
-Newspapers
-Television & Radio Stations
-Online Sites
-Out-of-Home Venues
-Direct Marketing Lists …”

http://www.wpp.com/wpp/companies/companydetail.htm?id=532

WPP acquired SDRS in 2009.

SRDS Portal

http://www.srds.com/portal/servlet/LoginServlet

Siegel also recommended that I send a letter or e-mail to the founder or head of the advertising agency expressing by interest in working for his agency.

I indicated that I was more interested in a creative position in advertising such as copywriter for I write every day on a blog and have published over sixty videos on YouTube http://www.youtube.com/user/raymondpronk and designed and developed a number of web sites on famous artists

Siegel suggested that I talked to the new editor and chief of the Richland Chronicle for they need to hire someone to do their website http://www.richlandchronicle.com/#5 , which I did. 

The one agency in Dallas that most impresses me is the Richards Group founded by Stan Richards.

2010 JA Dallas Business Hall of Fame Laureate – Stan Richards

I still remember participating in a focus group  one evening for The Richards Group.

A group of individuals in the financial services were there to review the advertising and marketing materials for a financial services client of  The Richards Group.

I will be reading his book next:

 Another firm that interests me is ReachLocal that is relatively new and has just opened an office in Dallas.

ReachLocal has a unique system that gets prospects for advertisers.

ReachLocal Vision

ReachLocal Promo – What We Do

ReachLocal Promo – How It Works

 

How It Works: The ReachLocal Platform

 

Job Descriptions

From Actual Job Open Positions At Ogilvy & Mather

Account Executive

“…Responsibilities:  

  • Responsible for the smooth week-by week running of the account and the effective management of all Client projects
  • Develops positive, proactive relationships with Client and Agency team creating a stimulating environment within which the best work can develop
  • Begins to develop people management skills by coaching and developing their reports and by demonstrating an ability to effectively delegate both up and down.
  • As the Account Executive moves towards promotion to Account Supervisor he/she will begin to show leadership and drive in thinking of innovative solutions to business/strategic problems and in merchandising the Agency’s services
  • Understands challenges facing Client’s business in the short-term
  • Makes it their business to know all aspects of competitive activity
  • Develops an understanding of the motivations/behaviour patterns of consumers in the marketplace by attending focus groups/ quantitative debriefs, store visits etc.
  • Goes to lengths to gain a thorough understanding of all aspects of the brand – from reading reports, visiting factories/stores and talking to sales force to using/experiencing the product/service
  • Supports planners in developing ideas and stimulus for research
  • Actively contributes to discussions on strategy and advertising development
  • Works with Account Director and Planner to develop inspirational briefings for Creatives
  • Keeps in regular contact with Creatives during development of ideas, keeping them supplied with any useful stimulus and helping to ensure they remain motivated and enthusiastic
  • Keeps Client involved in the development process to build their confidence and enable them to buy braver ideas.
  • Has mastered a range of presentation techniques and works with the Account Director to identify the most appropriate and inspiring way to present and sell each piece of creative work
  • Be a sound judge of creative work, able to coherently argue the case for or against creative work based on the brief and factual accuracy, both internally and with the Client …”

http://careers.ogilvy.com/private/myjobs/openjob_outside.jsp?a=3jdo4jjibi1r49wrf9pgq9n9b2pvqyz45f4wjbysqnrh3rk24g6avteuh5ueleox0&from=COMP&id=2333306&SearchString=+Account+executive+&StatesString=

Art Director

“…Responsibilities:

  • Generate original concepts in partnership with copywriter
  • Manage multiple deadlines/projects
  • Present creative to senior management, account teams and clients
  • Be a brand expert and steward for clients and Ogilvy
  • Cast (or assist with casting) talent for TV/radio/photo shoots and attend production/editing
  • Liaise with production companies, photographers, typographers, designers and printers

 http://careers.ogilvy.com/private/myjobs/openjob_outside.jsp?a=3jdo4jjibi1r49wrf9pgq9n9b2pvqyz45f4wjbysqnrh3rk24g6avteuh5ueleox0&from=COMP&id=2325403&SearchString=Art+Director&StatesString=

Copywriter

“…Responsibilities:

  • Generate original concepts in partnership with art director
  • Write strategically sound headlines and body copy for digital, print and broadcast deliverables
  • Manage multiple deadlines/projects
  • Present creative to clients
  • Keep breast of cultural and industry trends
  • Become a brand expert and steward for both clients and Ogilvy
  • Cast (or assist with casting) actors for TV/radio/photo shoots and attend production/editing
  • Liaise with production companies, photographers, typographers, designers and printers

http://careers.ogilvy.com/private/myjobs/openjob_outside.jsp?a=3jdo4jjibi1r49wrf9pgq9n9b2pvqyz45f4wjbysqnrh3rk24g6avteuh5ueleox0&from=COMP&id=2325396&SearchString=Copywriter&StatesString=

 

Media Director

“…Responsibilities:

  • Oversight on all aspects of client’s media services
  • Responsible for overall media objectives and strategies that fulfill client business objectives
  • Lead creation of all important plans and presentations
  • Demonstrate thought leadership and innovation for enhanced media plans and results
  • Foster cross-agency relationships with account, production, and outside partners
  • Train, motivate & develop Media Supervisors, Media Planners, Assistant Media Planners

http://careers.ogilvy.com/private/myjobs/openjob_outside.jsp?a=3jdo4jjibi1r49wrf9pgq9n9b2pvqyz45f4wjbysqnrh3rk24g6avteuh5ueleox0&from=COMP&id=2280700&SearchString=Media+Director&StatesString=

Researcher/Analyst

“…Responsibilities

Assist senior analytic staff with various analytic projects for experiential , shopper, and promotional campaigns

Retrieve raw data gathered from field or market activities and synthesize it into usable forms for account team usage

Join multiple sources of data into one, normalized dataset

Provide analysis beyond reporting basic facts, such as regression, cluster and factor analysis, and simple tests for statistical significance

Maintain library of analytics case studies used to develop industry benchmarks

Produce analytics reports from both custom and template designs

Manage time spent against multiple projects, ensuring deadlines are maintained and met

Assist in writing of reports

Some client-facing responsibilities …:

http://careers.ogilvy.com/private/myjobs/openjob_outside.jsp?a=3jdo4jjibi1r49wrf9pgq9n9b2pvqyz45f4wjbysqnrh3rk24g6avteuh5ueleox0&from=COMP&id=2335156&SearchString=Research&StatesString=Program

Program Director

“…Responsibilities:  

  • Will work primarily on the digital side of the business, including such projects as: 
    • Tutorials 
    • New product launches 
    • Various TWC.com site initiatives 
    • TWC online Applications 
  • Scoping new projects and recognizing changes to current scope 
  • Should be familiar with key disciplines and their processes for delivering work (IA, Creative, Content Strategy, Project Management, Strategy, Engineering, Usability, etc.) 
  • Working with other disciplines (especially digital project management) to assemble and manage teams to deliver work 
  • Project plan development and risk planning 
  • Reviewing actuals to track profitability of projects and course correct if necessary 
  • Day-to-day client contact and advisement 
  • Presentation writing and presenting skills, meeting facilitation skills  …”

http://careers.ogilvy.com/private/myjobs/openjob_outside.jsp?a=3jdo4jjibi1r49wrf9pgq9n9b2pvqyz45f4wjbysqnrh3rk24g6avteuh5ueleox0&from=COMP&id=2335529&SearchString=executive+&StatesString=

“The biggest problem which besets almost every agency is the problem of producing good campaigns. Copywriters, art directors, and television producers are easily come by, but the number of men who can preside over an agency’s entire creative output – perhaps a hundred new campaigns every year – can be numbered on the fingers of one hand. These rare trumpeter swans must be capable of inspiring a motley crew of writers and artists; they must be sure-footed judges of campaigns for a wide range of different products; they must be good presenters; and they must have a colossal appetite for midnight oil.”

    ~David Ogilvy, Confessions of an Advertising Man, 1971, New York:

 

David Ogilvy made it very clear what he wanted when he advertised for a Creative Director for Ogilvy & Mather International:

Trumpeter Swans

In my experience, there are five kinds of Creative Director:

1. Sound on strategy, dull on execution.

2.Good managers who don’t make waves…and don’t produce brilliant campaigns either.

3. Duds.

4. The genius who is a lousy leader.

5. TRUMPETER SWANS

     who combine personal genius with inspiring leadership.

      We have an opening for one of these rare birds in one of our offices overseas.

     Write in inviolable secrecy to me,

     David Ogilvy, Touffou, 86300 Bonnes, France.

    Signed David Ogilvy

~Source: Ogilvy On Advertising, page 48

Ultimate Animal Dads: Trumpeter Swans

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OnqkfglZI2Q&feature=related

 

The Trumpeter Swan

 

A Trumpeter Swan looking for a new career opportunity with an advertising agency.

 

Background Information

The Pope of Modern Advertising – David Ogilvy

 

http://www.hulu.com/watch/46488/the-david-susskind-show-the-pope-of-modern-advertising—david-ogilvy

David Ogilvy: We Sell or Else

David MacKenzie Ogilvy

“…David MacKenzie Ogilvy, CBE, (June 23, 1911–July 21, 1999), was a notable advertising executive. He has often been called “The Father of Advertising.” In 1962, Time called him “the most sought-after wizard in today’s advertising industry.” [1] He was known for a career of expanding the bounds of both creativity and morality in advertising. …”

“…The Ogilvy & Mather years (1949–1973)

After working as a chef, researcher, and farmer, Ogilvy started his agency with the backing of Mather and Crowther, the London agency being run by his elder brother, Francis, which later acquired another London agency, S. H. Benson. The new agency in New York was called Ogilvy, Benson, and Mather. David Ogilvy had just $6,000 in his account when he started the agency. He writes in Confessions of an Advertising Man that initially, he struggled to get clients. Ogilvy also admitted (referring to the pioneer of British advertising Bobby Bevan, the chairman of Benson) “I was in awe of him but Bevan never took notice of me!” They would meet later, however.[3]

Ogilvy & Mather was built on David Ogilvy’s principles, in particular, that the function of advertising is to sell and that successful advertising for any product is based on information about its consumer.

His entry into the company of giants started with several iconic advertising campaigns:

“The man in the Hathaway shirt” with his aristocratic eye patch which used Baron George Wrangell as model; “The man from Schweppes is here” introduced Commander Edward Whitehead, the elegant bearded Brit, bringing Schweppes (and “Schweppervesence”) to the U.S.; a famous headline in the automobile business, “At 60 miles an hour the loudest noise in this new Rolls-Royce comes from the electric clock”; “Pablo Casals is coming home – to Puerto Rico”, a campaign which Ogilvy said helped change the image of a country, and was his proudest achievement.

One of his greatest successes was “Only Dove is one-quarter moisturizing cream”. This campaign helped Dove become the top selling soap in the U.S.

Ogilvy believed that the best way to get new clients was to do notable work for his existing clients. Success in his early campaigns helped Ogilvy get big clients such as Rolls-Royce and Shell. New clients followed and Ogilvy’s company grew quickly.

In 1973 Ogilvy retired as Chairman of Ogilvy & Mather and moved to Touffou, his estate in France. While no longer involved in the agency’s day-to-day operations, he stayed in touch with the company. His correspondence so dramatically increased the volume of mail handled in the nearby town of Bonnes that the post office was reclassified at a higher status and the postmaster’s salary raised.

Ogilvy & Mather linked with H.H.D Europe in 1972. …”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Ogilvy_(businessman)

Russia-Matryoshka doll class

SRDS sale gives WPP an unfair advantage

“…This affects the direct marketing industry because SRDS provides a research system that is used for making mailing list purchasing decisions and formulating media plans. List managers use SRDS to promote their lists. List brokers and mailers use SRDS to make list selections.

WPP Group is a huge advertising agency holding company with an estimated 100,000 employees and £6.18 billion revenue in 2007. A big part of WPP’s revenue is commissions from media purchases done by their stable of advertising agencies. It’s a good strategy for WPP to buy SRDS because it will give them better insight into media purchases that happen outside of WPP. They can use SRDS’ database to better calculate their market share and to develop laser-focused strategies to acquire the share they don’t already own.

If I were a list broker, I’d be really nervous about this.

After all, list brokers compete with WPP agencies for their commissions (i.e. their livelihood). If WPP owns their list research system, it would provide WPP with powerful insights that enable them to steal the business away from list brokers and move those commissions to WPP agencies.

Imagine if your competitor could see all your research and proposals before you publish them. They would eat your lunch! …”

http://blog.nextmark.com/2008/11/srds-sale-gives-wpp-an-unfair-advantage.html

The Richards Group

“…The Richards Group is an American advertising agency. It is the largest independently owned agency in the country.[citation needed]

Based in Dallas, Texas, The Richards Group reports annual billings approaching $1.25 billion. Memorable work includes the iconic Chick-fil-A Cows (“Eat Mor Chikin”)[1], the Motel 6 campaign featuring Tom Bodett, and the dialogue-free Corona Beer TV commercials set on tropical beaches.

Major clients include Baby Magic[2], Fruit of the Loom, Home Depot, Sub-Zero/Wolf, and Zales. The agency handles advertising, public relations, and promotions for dozens of clients nationwide, in addition to sports/entertainment marketing for colleges and universities.

In the 3rd quarter of 2009, PODS signed The Richards Group as their creative agency.[3]

The Richards Group is associated by common ownership with Houston advertising agency Richards/Carlberg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Richards_Group

Trumpet of the swan – Ogilvy & Mather Chairman and CEO Rochelle Lazarus

“…In 1994, IBM stunned the marketing world by consolidating its $500 million advertising account, parceled among 40 agencies, into just one. It was the largest account switch ever and at its center was Shelley Lazarus, then the president and COO of WPP Group’s Ogilvy & Mather Worldwide.

Named chief executive last fall, on April 30 Lazarus inherited the chairman’s baton from Charlotte Beers, the 61-year-old dynamic Texan who became the first female chief executive in O&M’s history in 1992. Heading the $7.6 billion agency that legendary adman David Ogilvy founded in 1948, whose clients include Duracell, Ford, Kimberly Clark, Shell Oil, Jaguar, Sears Roebuck, Eastman Kodak, and American Express, makes Lazarus the most powerful woman in advertising – not bad for someone who couldn’t find work 25 years ago.

“Other agencies wouldn’t hire me, claiming they didn’t want to alienate the wives of account executives with whom I’d have to work late,” Lazarus recalls. But O&M took her on in 1971 as an assistant and a few years later – when she was six months pregnant – named her its first female account executive. With the exception of a hiatus in 1974 to follow her husband on a two-year posting at a Dayton, OH, Air Force base and care for their newborn, she has spent virtually her entire career at O&M. On returning to New York, she rejoined the firm and was soon running O&M Direct, the unit responsible for “junk mail.” Considered “off-the-path” at the time, Lazarus found direct marketing “a specialty with enormous profit potential,” and parlayed the job into a launch pad for posts as president of the New York office and president of Ogilvy North America. …”

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4070/is_n124/ai_19694503/

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Unit 2 Part 2 Modern and Traditional Advertising Techniques.

Posted on July 22, 2010. Filed under: Advertising, Bandwagon, Bathroom, Communications, Contextual, Keyword/Pay Per Click/Cost Per Action, Magazines, Mass Media, Mobile, Movies, Music, Newspapers, Pixel, Placement, Print Media, Public Relations, Radio, Television, Testimonials/Endorsements, Web, Web Banner | Tags: , , , , , |

Part 2: Compose a 500-word essay comparing and contrasting modern advertising methods with traditional methods (read attached article “Modern Advertising Methods”).

Focus on how advertising has changed and/or stayed the same. Post this essay in your blog by Thursday, July 22 at 5 p.m. 

There are several types of advertising including : 

1. Product/service 

2. Branding 

3. Institutional/issue 

4. Public service announcement. 

There are also several advertising media: 

1. Print media (newspaper and magazines) 

2. Electronic media (radio and television) 

3. Online (computer and cellphone) 

4. Public spaces (billboards, buildings, buses, bus stops, taxis and signs) 

5. Directly to people (direct mail and telemarketing). 

As new media were developed the methods of advertising changed. The first advertisements were in local newspapers. 

This was followed by advertisements in magazines for a broader regional or national audience. 

The print media advertisements were largely text supplemented with illustrations and later photographs and the use of color. 

With the advent of commercial radio broadcasts, audio (voice and music) was used to advertise products and services to radio show listeners. 

 When television took off starting in 1948, advertisers still used text, illustrations, photographs and audio in their commercials that were first in black and white, then color and now high-definition. 

Now, however film or videos could be used to make commercials that were broadcast to television show viewers. 

Starting in 1995 the internet and the world-wide web  provided  a media where the viewer of a web site could interact with the advertising by first searching for the specific information and next selecting the advisement that was most relevant to them. 

This interaction consisted primarily of the viewer clicking on buttons or hyperlinks or filling out forms that were submitted and saved in databases. 

Today advertising in print media such as  newspapers and magazines and broadcasting media such as radio and television are  considered traditional advertising. 

Modern advertising increasingly uses the world-wide web to deliver the advertisers’ message aimed primarily  sell the products and services and the  brand name of the advertiser. 

Both traditional and modern advertising still use text, illustrations, photographs, images, audio, movies and videos as media to deliver the advertiser’s message.  

As consumers spent more and more time on computers and cell phones and less time reading newspapers and magazines,  listening to radio, and watching television, the advertisers started moving more and more of their advertising budget to online advertising on web sites viewed either on a personal computer or cell phone. 

Text,  illustrations and photographs first used in traditional advertising are also  being used in modern advertising including web banner, blog, mobile, contextual, keyword, promotional, pixel and public relation advertising. 

With traditional radio and television advertising the listener or viewer must watch a scheduled television broadcast which includes the advertiser’s commercial message. The communication is largely one way from the source to the receiver of the advertiser’s message. The audience is large, heterogenous, anonymous (usually unknown) and passive with little opportunity for feedback. 

With modern online advertising the viewer or listener can actively interact with the advertiser’s message by deciding first whether they even want to see the advertisement and then have an opportunity to fill out a form to obtain additional information and free promotional items  from the advertiser or even purchase the product or service over the web. The communication is two-way from the source to the receiver and back again,. The audience is smaller and targeted, more homogeneous, known and active with opportunities for immediate and later feedback. 

The techniques of modern advertising are different from traditional advertising and largely reflect the new media’s use of computers, mobile devices or cell phones, and networks to deliver the advertiser’s message. 

Advertising on web sites consists mainly of web banner ads appearing on the top of a web page. 

The early web banner ads were largely static text combined with images consisting of illustrations and/or photographs. 

Today many web banners ads now have added animations, games and video clips such Flash movies and videos embedded into the web banner ad area of the web page. 

The difference between web banner advertising and television advertising is the computer user decides when and what site to visit and decides whether they want to click on an advertisement to obtain additional information about the product or service being promoted. 

Cable and satellite television do however let the viewer decide when they want to watch a particular program or movie. 

Videos used in television commercials are also being repurposed to be used again in online video advertising . 

More and more people and businesses have blogs or web sites where people and businesses express themselves and respond to comments and questions asked by the blog’s viewers. 

The popularity of blogs has attracted advertisers who place advertisement such as web banner ads or sidebars to promote the sale of their products and service that are relevant to the blog post or blog. 

Advertisers can place and target their ads based on the content, tags and categories of a blog post. 

Viewers of a blog post on a specific subject or  category will also view a web banner ad related to the subject of the  post above the blog post. 

For example a blog post on the American revolution may view a banner ads about American history books or the American revolution. 

Thus the modern advertising techniques of web banner ads and blog advertising enable advertisers to target a very narrow audience of those most interested in the advertisers products and services. 

This is in sharp contrast to both printed media advertising and commercial radio and television advertising where the targeted audience is much broader. 

Many advertisements on web sites and blogs previously seen on a computer screen are now also available for viewing on cell phones. 

This advertising is called mobile advertising or cell phone advertising. Those viewers of an ad may be sent a text message with a promotion or attentional information about a product or service. 

Defining Mobile Marketing

SMS text messaging can be used to send text messages to cell phone users that have expressed an interest in receiving information or an advertising message about a product or service. 

  

Part 1: Introduction to Mobile Marketing
 

 

  

Part 2: Introduction to Mobile Marketing

Modern advertising includes both contextual advertising and keyword advertising techniques that are used on web sites with search engine applications. 

Today’s search engines are used by both computer and cell phone users to seek information. 

Search engine sites such as Google, Bing and Yahoo use contextual advertising to display the most relevant advertisements. 

Based on the entry typed into the search engine box, advertisements will be displayed usually at the top of the returned results page or in a separate column or panel on the far right or left of the web site page.
Keyword advertising also known as pay-per-click and cost per action advertising are used by search engine sites to sell advertising space on the web site pages to advertisers. Advertisers pay-per-click for viewers who click on an advertisement on the search returned page. 

Pay Per Click Advertising Secrets

 

While online advertising on web sites and blogs is by far the largest portion of modern advertising, the fastest growing is online video ads. 

Also the use of promotional advertising where giving promotional items away also worked very well on the web. An advertiser’s message is pushed to the viewer of a web site and information about the viewer is pulled from them by having the viewer fill out and submit a form to get the free valuable promotional item and information. 

Web 2.0 – Promotion Methods that get Results – Video

However, not all modern advertising is solely online advertising. 

Modern advertising also includes testimonials and endorsements, bandwagon, promotional, and bathroom advertising that has evolved from traditional advertising in the print, electronic and public space media. 

Testimonials and endorsements especially by celebrities, bandwagon and surrogate advertising  use propaganda advertising techniques.  

If some celebrity gives a testimonial and endorsement of a product, then you too are more likely to buy the product. 

With bandwagon advertising you will usually find such words as everyone, ours, we,  yours, universal, call and act now, don’t miss out, join the sensation,  and what are you waiting for? 

What is Propaganda

The advertiser wants you to jump or hop on the bandwagon and purchase their products and services just like everyone else is doing. Bandwagon advertising is  like peer group pressure. If everyone is buying and using the product or service, you should be buying and using the product or service. 

Propaganda Bandwagon

Bandwagon advertising has been used in the past in traditional advertising and is now being used online with YouTube videos as well: 

Hopping on the Advertising Bandwagon…

Getting Your Business on the Blogging Bandwagon

When alcohol and cigarette products are banned from advertising on broadcast radio and television, an advertiser can use surrogate advertising to promote the product using their brand name with another of its products which is not banned under a nation’s laws. 

The following online Youtube advertisement does exactly this by using the brand name, Club Royal, and the drink, apple juice, as a surrogate advertisement for Club Royal Whisky: 

Surrogate Advt for CLUB ROYAL WHISKY produced by AUTUMNCART

Surrogate advertising is also used by pharmaceutical companies who cannot advertise prescription medications. However, pharmaceutical companies can have an informational commercials about a disease or condition and have the  medication branding scattered throughout the advertisement to get consumers used to the brand. 

Modern advertising has even come to public bathrooms with the placement of ads on the back of doors and on mirrors. Face it, you have a captive target audience and theadvertiser’s messages are being read: 

Opportunity Knocks – AllOver Media Restroom Ads

 

Marketing Mirror/ Mirror Image by LuxuryTec :: The Original

Magic Display Advertising Mirror

Indoor Restroom Digital Billboards Greensboro NC

What is next in the modern advertising world? 

How about high-definition digital signage and interactive mirror advertising? 

  

  

An Introduction to Digital Signage

Interactive Mirror for DIESEL GINZA

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QU5DrVu2gdg&NR=1  

All advertising, both traditional and modern, uses some combination of text, images, illustrations, photographs, audio, and video to deliver the advertiser’s message whether that be to promote the sale of goods and services, a brand name, institution, issue or a public service announcement. Advertising is a big, growing and changing business. 

  

Background Information

Ogilvy’s New Media Guru On Online Advertising
 

  

The Future of Online Advertising is Video
 

  

Video Ads on YouTube will be Predominately Professional
 

  

David Hallerman on Gateway Advertising
 

  

Online Video Advertising Must be “Contextual”
 

  

What Is Surrogate Advertising? 

“…Surrogate advertising is advertising which embeds a brand or product message inside an advertisement which is ostensibly for another brand or product. For example, a cigarette company might issue public service announcements relating to a topic such as lung cancer, using the company’s logo or distinctive brand colors in the ads so that people are exposed to the company’s branding without seeing an explicit ad for the company’s product. The company would justify the advertisement by claiming that it’s an example of social responsibility. …” 

http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-surrogate-advertising.htm

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