News Journal: Number 22, September 30, 2010: Tony Curtis Dies At 85 At Home In Henderson, Nevada–Vidoes

Posted on September 30, 2010. Filed under: Art, Audio, Books, Books, Communications, Digital Communication, Mass Media, Movies, Print Media, Television, Web | Tags: , , , , , |

” My father leaves behind a legacy of great performances in movies and in his paintings and assemblages. He leaves behind children and their families who loved him and respected him and a wife and in-laws who were devoted to him. He also leaves behind fans all over the world. He will be greatly missed.”

~ Jamie Lee Curtis

“While you’re doing it, you don’t really know what you’re doing.”

~Tony Curtis

Coroner Actor Tony Curtis dies at Las Vegas home

Movie Legends – Tony Curtis

City Across The River (1949) Tony Curtis clip

Hollywood legend Tony Curtis dies

Operation Petticoat – Tony Curtis

Tony Curtis on Cary Grant

What’s my Line? Tony Curtis

Sex and the Single Girl Pt. 1

Sex and the Single Girl Pt 2

The Defiant Ones – Quarry

Tony Curtis: The Outsider (1961) Trailer

Tony Curtis Jerry Lewis – Boeing Boeing (1965)

Jack Lemmon and Tony Curtis

Selected clips from ‘The Boston Strangler’ (1968)

You Can’t Win ‘Em All (Part 2) Tony Curtis & Charles Bronson [1970]

Laurence Maslon on Some Like It Hot, Tony Curtis, Jack Lemmon and Marilyn Monroe

Houdini Straitjacket Escape

The Great Race Pie Fight

Tony Curtis On Laugh-In. Part 1.

Tony Curtis On Laugh-In. Part 2.

Tony Curtis & Janet Leigh

Tony Curtis on TV-am in 1985

“We often don’t think of them, we think of the great wars and the great battles, but what about losing a son or a daughter, or a girl losing her husband or vice versa? I think of the people who never got the chance to have the opportunities I had.”

~Tony Curtis

The movies I remember most staring Tony Curtis are Some Like It Hot and Operation Petticoat.

A boy from the Bronx joined the Navy and within a few years was staring in movies.

His pursuit of painting is a lesson we all can learn from.

May he rest in peace.

Background Articles and Videos

Tony Curtis Interview

The Late Late Show Interview 11/27/2008 [HQ]

Tony Curtis Salutes Sidney Poitier at AFI Life Achievement Award

Tony Curtis interview

Tony Curtis and Sir Roger Moore are The Persuaders

Tony Curtis at the Los Angeles Theatre


Tony Curtis

“…Tony Curtis (June 3, 1925 – September 29, 2010) was an American film actor. He played a variety of roles, from light comedy, such as the musician on the run from gangsters in Some Like It Hot, to serious dramatic roles, such as an escaped convict in The Defiant Ones, which earned him a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor. From 1949, he appeared in more than 100 films and made frequent television appearances. …”

“…Curtis’s uncredited screen debut came in Criss Cross (1949) playing a rumba dancer. In his second film, City Across the River (also in 1949), he was credited as “Anthony Cross”.[7] Later, as “Tony Curtis”, he cemented his reputation with breakthrough performances such as in the role of the scheming press agent Sidney Falco in Sweet Smell of Success (1957) with Burt Lancaster (who also starred in Criss Cross) and an Oscar-nominated performance as a bigoted escaped convict chained to Sidney Poitier in The Defiant Ones.

He did both screen comedy and drama together and became the most sought after star in Hollywood: Curtis’ comedies include Some Like It Hot (1959), Sex and the Single Girl (1964) and The Great Race (1965), and his dramas included playing the slave Antoninus in Stanley Kubrick’s Spartacus (1960) co-starring Kirk Douglas and Sir Laurence Olivier,[8] The Outsider (1961), the true story of WW II veteran Ira Hayes, and The Boston Strangler (1968), in which he played the self-confessed murderer of the film’s title, Albert DeSalvo. The latter film was praised for Curtis’ performance.

Curtis also appeared frequently on television; he co-starred with Roger Moore in the TV series The Persuaders!. Later, he co-starred in McCoy and Vega$. In the early 1960s, he was immortalized as “Stony Curtis,” a voice-over guest star on The Flintstones.

In 1978 Curtis introduced the Electric Light Orchestra at Wembley Arena for their opening night concert (a Gala charity event) on Out of the Blue: Live at Wembley.

Throughout his life, Curtis enjoyed painting, and since the early 1980s, painted as a second career. His work commands more than $25,000 a canvas now. In the last years of his life, he concentrated on painting rather than movies. A surrealist, Curtis claimed “Van Gogh, [Paul] Matisse, Picasso, Magritte” as influences.[3] “I still make movies but I’m not that interested in them any more. But I paint all the time.” In 2007, his painting The Red Table was on display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. His paintings can also be seen at the Tony Vanderploeg Gallery in Carmel, California.

Curtis spoke of his disappointment at never being awarded an Oscar. But in March 2006, Curtis did receive the Sony Ericsson Empire Lifetime Achievement Award. He also has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, and received the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (Order of Arts and Letters) from France in 1995. …”

“…Curtis died at his Las Vegas (Henderson, Nevada) home on September 29, 2010, of cardiac arrest.[18][19][20][21] In a release to the Associated Press, his daughter, actress Jamie Lee Curtis, stated:

My father leaves behind a legacy of great performances in movies and in his paintings and assemblages. He leaves behind children and their families who loved him and respected him and a wife and in-laws who were devoted to him. He also leaves behind fans all over the world. He will be greatly missed.” [22]

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

History of Advertising–Videos

Posted on July 16, 2010. Filed under: Advertising, Art, Communications, Digital Communication, Television | Tags: , , , , , , |


History of Advertising 1/9

History of Advertising 2/9

History of Advertising 3/9

History of Advertising 4/9

History of Advertising 5/9

History of Advertising 6/9

History of Advertising 7/9

History of Advertising 8/9

History of Advertising 9/9

Related Posts On Pronk Papers

Adam Curtis–The Century of Self–Videos

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( 1 so far )

Going Down and Boobs, Burgers, Beers, BMWs and Balloons!

Posted on June 30, 2010. Filed under: Advertising, Art, Communications, Digital Communication, Ethical Practices, Ethics, Mass Media, Movies, Music, Television, Web | Tags: , , , , , , , , , |

Sex Sells
This is a two-part assignment.

Part 1

Search for advertising: Find two examples of advertising that you personally think crosses the barrier and heads into bad taste. Doesn’t necessarily have to be sexually oriented, it could be gross, ghastly or simply stupid. For example, a fashion designer had an ad campaign a couple of years ago that featured inmates on death row. As part of your answer, you are going to have to describe the ad, unless of course it is a print ad and you are able to copy or scan it and send the image. After finding the ad, the key will be to explain why you think it is too much. There’s no right answer, just your answer. It should be well-thought out and defendable. If you have a hard time finding something that you personally disapprove of, find some advertising that is appropriate in one place, but not another. For example, an advertisement could easily be fine for the readers of Maxim or Cosmopolitan but not be appropriate in Readers Digest, Time and Sports Illustrated.

Going Down

The four selected television commercial advertisements discussed below  may offend some viewers who would say they cross the barrier or line into obscenity, indecency, and profanity and are therefore in bad taste.

While I do not find any of the four television commercial ads in bad taste and cross the line, a case can be made that all four are offensive and should not be run or broadcast on commercial television.

What one person finds inoffensive and amusing, another person may find offensive and in bad taste.

This is  especially true of individuals  from different cultures, religious upbringings, generations, gender, ages, and political ideologies.

Since the advertiser of the product or service is paying for both the production of the commercial ad and the advertising time to broadcast the commercial, they should decide whether to run  the ad, in what markets, and at what time of the day.

The broadcaster of the ad, in this case television stations, should have the right to refuse to run the ad if they believe it would offend a significant number of viewers or be in violation of the law.

The first two commercials are probably the most offensive in terms of the potential number of viewers that would consider them in bad taste or crossing the barrier or  line.

The first ad is for a man’s shower gel, AXE.

A naked man falling into a room full of woman exercising might in and of itself offend some people.

When the naked man then leads the group of woman in their exercises, some might say this crosses the line.

Full frontal nudity is suggested and many people would find this commercial ad inappropriate for commercial television.

Finally, when the man joins another woman in the next room and the women exercise class continues to exercise with a highly suggestive sexual motion, this may definitely offend some people.

The college male is the apparent target audience of the commercial.

Most young men will find it funny and humorous and not offensive at all.

Some will go out and purchase the product, which is the whole point of the ad.

banned commercial – axe – shower girls

Running a commercial for a television program about a woman who is call girl or professional prostitute would offend some people who think the premise for program crosses the line and is in bad taste.

When the actress makes her case as to the benefits of being a call girl, this would also offend many people who would find the commercial inappropriate for commercial television.

Many children could be watching the program.

The parents of these children may find it inappropriate for their children to be exposed to this message should they be watching when the commercial runs.

Highly religious individuals and those from other cultures that do not tolerate prostitution would usually be offended and think both the commercial and the program are in bad taste.

Why I became a call girl

An anti-smoking ad usually would not offend people because it is attempting to stop people from smoking, a highly addictive habit that is not good for your health.

Smokers, however, might not think the ad is very funny.

After September 11, 2001, any commercial having a part of a building and people  falling to their deaths would be disturbing, if not offensive, to New Yorkers and many Americans. For this reason alone I would not run the ad, although I still find the ad funny.

I should disclose that I do not smoke and avoid confined places were people are smoking.

This is a GREAT anti smoking ad

In Europe and America, the use of a music video to promote a group’s new song is fairly common and not usually considered offensive.

The following commercial would fall into this inoffensive category:

The Bangles – Going Down To Liverpool

However, for Moslems, the musical video ad shows women with their faces and hair uncovered in a car with a man who is apparently not a member of the family. This would make the musical video ad offensive and inappropriate for commercial television where Moslems are a significant portion of the audience such as in Saudi Arabia.

Also, woman performing in public to a large audience, even when only suggestive, would be offensive and in bad taste for some audiences, particularly Moslem and Fundamentalists.

Beauty as well as offensiveness is in the eyes and ears of the beholder.

 Part 2

Opinion Essay: Many advertisers rely on sex to sell their products. Why is this? Does sex sell? Why or why not? Does that bother you or are you okay with it? Is there a way for somebody, say conservative parents, to change this emphasis? If you were king/queen of advertising and could make whatever rules you wanted, what limits on sex would you set up to regulate advertising?

Boobs, Burgers, Beers, BMWs and Balloons!

One  reason many advertisers rely on sex or attractive females and males to sell their products is advertisements first need to get the viewer’s attention by cutting  through the noise or clutter of other advertisements so that their commercials get noticed.

Sex is a widely used natural attention-getter.

A commercial ad may be very visible and give the viewing audience the impression it is a great ad.

However, is the commercial working?

While getting consumer attention is very important, the commercial advertisement must also have viewers register the advertiser’s brand and remember the message of the ad.

By combining sex and humor a commercial ad my go viral and become communicable–“Did you see the ad for….”

Humorous and sexy commercial ads are noticed more and get greater viewer audience attention.

Humorous  and sexy commercial ads are most often considered entertainment and not evaluated as to whether the ad’s message is true or false.

Humorous and sexy commercial ads are usually liked more by the viewing audience.

Ads that are liked by their viewers tend to be noticed, recognized and remembered and thus are effective in delivering the ad’s message and registering the ad’s brand.

Ads must also have salience or be in the conscious mind of a viewer at a given moment.

When it is time for breakfast, lunch or dinner, restaurant advertiser wants their ads to  be remembered.

The advertiser wants to be in viewer’s product category cue and preferrable first in line.

The  same is true when you are purchasing a beverage, a car or a condom.

Another reason many advertisers rely on sex or attractive females and males is these advertisements are effective in selling their products or services.

Sexy ads especially when combined with humor get results.

The four commercial advertisements below use both sex and humor to get your attention, stand out, register the advertiser’s brand, and deliver their message:







The advertisers are trying to associate a positive emotion about men and woman and sex appeal with their products–burgers, beers, cars, and condoms through conditioning and repetition of the commercial.

Buy the product and you too can experience the same thrill or emotion.

All the ads first get your attention and keep it with the sexy and/or beautiful woman and man.

When using sex and humor in commercial advertisements one must be careful that one does not offend a significant number of viewers.

What is acceptable and humorous in one culture or one generation may be offensive and not humorous in another culture or generation.

Both sex and humor can be a two-edged sword that cuts both ways.

I have no problems or issues with commercial ads using sex and attractive men and women to sell a product or service.

Parents can complain to the advertisers of the product or service or to the radio and television stations that carry the commercial ads if they have issues or problems with sex and sexy women and men used to sell product or service.

Most advertiser and stations will listen to their complaints.

However, if the ads are selling products and services, they will note and ignore most of the complaints.

Only when a significant number of consumers complain to advertisers and stations will they take note and pull the ad. 

Since I believe in the republican form of consensual government, I have no desire to be either king or queen of advertising or the person who censors advertising.

The government or state should not regulate advertising. 

The advertisers should self-regulate themselves.

Advertising agencies formed the National Advertising Review Board  (NARB) for the purpose  of hearing complaints against advertisers.

About the National Advertising Review Board (NARB)

“…In 1971, the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), the American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA), and the American Advertising Federation (AAF) formed an alliance with the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB) to create an independent self-regulatory body-the National Advertising Review Council (NARC). To ensure the credibility and impartiality of the self-regulation system, the advertising review process operates under the administrative purview of the CBBB.

Established to provide guidance and set standards of truth and accuracy for national advertisers, NARC sets policy for the National Advertising Review Board (NARB), the National Advertising Division (NAD), the Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU) of the CBBB and the Electronic Retailing Self-Regulation Program (ERSP).

The National Advertising Review Board (NARB) is the NARC appeals board. When an advertiser or challenger disagrees with an NAD or CARU recommendation, they may appeal the decision to the NARB for additional review.

The National Advertising Review Board is made up of 70 professionals from three different categories: National Advertisers (40 members), Advertising Agencies (20 members) and Public members (10) made up of academics and former members of the public sector.

NARB members are nominated for their stature and experience in their respective fields. Nominations are made by the National Advertising Review Council’s supporting organizations: the CBBB, ANA, AAAA and AAF. Nominations are submitted to NARC, the governing body of NARB, for election at its annual meeting. The term for membership is two years, and each member is eligible to be re-appointed for two additional two-year terms.”

The advertiser knows that if he offends his target audience, the ad will fail in selling products or services, could damage the company’s reputation and even lead to possible lawsuits that might results in signficant financial damages.

For example on commercial radio and television explicit sex and full frontal nudity are not acceptable in the United States.

Any company that used explicit sex and frontal nudity on commercial radio and television would face damage to its brand and potential damages as a result of a complaint or lawsuit from offended viewers in the United States.

I would let the local community together with the advertisers and stations determine what they consider acceptable and unacceptable in terms of images, videos, and language.

This means the continued ban on full frontal nudity, explicit sex and the ban on certain words.

Also if a commercial advertisement had gratuitous sex and/or violence, I would probably ban the ad.

This would have to be handled on a case by case basis.

If an advertisement is deceptive, restricts competition or otherwise injures the consumer, the consumer can go to Federal Trade Commission and complain.

 The FTC monitors and deters false, fraudulent, misleading and deceptive advertising in interstate commerce.

False and misleading advertising is considered by the FTC as an unfair trade practice which the FTC has jurisdiction over.

The FTC regulates advertising messages to ensure that consumers receive complete, truthful, and nondeceptive advertising.

The  FTC can stop an ad campaign if they find that the ad is deceptive or injures the consumer.

Federal Trade Commission

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates  the broadcast media and as such indirectly regulates and controls commercial advertising. The FCC takes complaints and can make determinations as to whether an advisement for a product or service is misleading and tasteless.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

Certain words are still not acceptable:

The Seven Words 

In summary the limits should be informally set by the community in terms of what actions, images and words are unacceptable.

However, it is still illegal to broadcast obscene or indecent programming and use profane language in the United States.

These are the limits that advertisers as well as stations that are licensed by the Federal Communications Commission must still observe.

If a viewer or listener believes the advertiser or station has crossed the line into obscenity, indecency and profanity, they can always file a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission:

Federal Communications Commission

“…In making obscenity, indecency, and profanity determinations, context is key. The FCC staff must analyze what was actually aired, the meaning of what was aired, and the context in which it was aired. Accordingly, the FCC asks complainants to provide the following information:

  • Information regarding the details of what was actually said or depicted during the broadcast.

    The complainant may choose the format for providing the information, but it must be sufficiently detailed so that the FCC can determine the words or language used, or the images or scenes depicted during the broadcast and the context of those words, language, images, or scenes. Subject matter alone is not sufficient to determine whether material is obscene, indecent, or profane. For example, stating only that the objectionable programming “discussed sex” or had a “disgusting discussion of sex” is not sufficient. Moreover, the FCC must know the context when analyzing whether specific, isolated words or images are obscene, indecent, or profane. The FCC does not require complainants to provide tapes or transcripts in support of their complaints. Consequently, failure to provide a tape or transcript of a broadcast, in and of itself, will not lead to automatic dismissal or denial of a complaint. Nonetheless, a tape or transcript is helpful in processing a complaint and, if available, should be provided.
  • The date and time of the broadcast. Under federal law, if the FCC assesses a monetary forfeiture against a broadcast station for violation of a rule, it must specify the date the violation occurred. Accordingly, it is important that complainants provide the date the material in question was broadcast. Indecent or profane speech that is broadcast between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. is not actionable. Consequently, the FCC must know the time of day that the material was broadcast.
  • The call sign, channel, or frequency of the station involved.

    To take enforcement action for the airing of prohibited material, the FCC must be able to identify the station that aired the material. By providing the call sign, channel, or frequency of the station, you will help us to quickly and efficiently process your complaint. The name of the program, DJ, personality, song, or film; network; and city and state where you heard or saw the program are also helpful.

Any documentation you provide to the FCC about your complaint becomes part of the FCC’s records and may not be returned.


Today Now!: FCC Okays Nudity On TV If It’s Alyson Hannigan

Alternatively, just say no, and either change the channel or turn the radio or television set off.

Drive your BMW to Nando for a double-breasted burger with a bottle of  cool Bavaria beer and bring your Trust condoms in case it suddenly rains.

“That government is best which governs the least, because its people discipline themselves.”

~Thomas Jefferson


Background Information


Adam Curtis–The Century of Self–Videos


Sex In The Media

Mind Control, Psychology of Brainwashing, Sex & Hypnosis

Propaganda, Black Public Relations & Mind Control Report Part 1


Propaganda, Black Public Relations & Mind Control Report Part 2

Sex in Advertising Mind Control Video Psychology Sex Porn Sell


Unlocking You, Human Needs, Self Actualization, How to, Maslow, Humanistic Psychology

Advertising and the mind of the consumer: what workd, what doesn’t, and why

By Max Sutherland and Alice K. Sylvester


Contrary to popular belief, most ads are not designed to make consumers want to run out and buy the product. Using examples from popular international campaigns, this book provides insight into the minds of both creators and consumers of advertising. It demonstrates why one brand is more likely to come to mind than another, dispels the myths behind subliminal advertising, reveals the tricks successful advertisers use, and clarifies how and why some messages work and some misfire. Meant as a tool for both advertising personnel and consumers who are concerned with the messages with which they are being bombarded, the information presented here explains the tactics that are used to make ads more memorable and exposes what advertisers are really trying to achieve. …”

Controversies in Contemporary Advertising

By Kim Sheehan


Suitable for college level classrooms, this text takes a critical look at the economic, political, social, and ethical aspects of advertising. Sheehan (U. of Oregon’s School of Journalism and Communication) includes 17 chapters addressing such issues as stereotyping, controversial products, consumer culture, and new technology, with abundant examples and b&w illustrations. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR …”

The Advertised Mind: Groundbreaking Insights Into How Our Brains Respond to Advertising

By Erik Du Plessis


Research by Erik du Plessis has helped show that the strongest factor predicting an advertisement’s success is how much the ad is liked.  In The Advertised Mind, du Plessis draws on information about the working of the human brain from psychologists, neurologists and artificial intelligence specialists.  He uses this research to suggest why emotion is such an important factor in establishing a firm memory of an advertisement and predisposing consumers to buy the brand that is being advertised.  He explores what “ad-liking” really means and suggests how this emerging paradigm could lead to a new phase in the ongoing effort to obtain maximum return from advertising spending. …”

Taste and Decency survey results

Amusing or offensive, Axe ads show that sexism sells

By Sam McManis

The Sacramento Bee

“… That’s the thing about this advertising campaign: The ads can offend and entertain in equal measure.

But in the past three years, they’ve also been seen as proof by many that American advertising has pushed the envelope to the breaking point.

Last month, the consumer watchdog group Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood began a letter-writing push to Axe’s parent company, Unilever, accusing it of sexism and hypocrisy.

Unilever is also the parent company of Dove, whose latest ad in its “Campaign for Real Beauty” upbraids sexploitation in advertising and tells parents to “Talk to your daughter before the beauty industry does.”

Susan Linn, director of the consumer group and a professor at Harvard Medical School, says the letter-writing effort has spawned more than 2,000 e-mails to Unilever executives. “Unilever needs to have a consistent policy on how it treats women,” Linn says by phone from Cambridge, Mass.

“Either treat them the Dove way or the Axe way. Unilever has dismissed it as just a joke. But, in fact, advertising images have a powerful effect, even if people don’t realize it. Especially if they don’t realize it.”

In response to e-mailed questions, a statement from the company says that the ads are developed for comedic value and are “not meant to be taken literally.” …”

Secret Diary of a Call Girl

 “…Hannah is more than she appears to be in Secret Diary of a Call Girl . Hannah is also Belle, one of the top high-class call girls in the city of London. Hannah and Belle have the same common goal; to make as much money as possible while they still can. This show was originally shown by ITV2… More in the UK (season one from September 27th 2007 till November 15th 2007). This first season was a huge success for ITV2 with up to two million viewers per episode. Early in 2008, US network Showtime was attracted by the show’s success and bought the license to show two seasons in the US (20 episodes). The broadcast is scheduled to start on June 16th 2008. The second season will air on ITV2 starting September 11th 2008. More to the shows success: The controversial sex scenes also resulted in a nomination for best soft core production at the “UK Adult Film Awards” in 2007. But that’s not all! The first season has also been nominated for the “Golden Rose TV award” in the category “best drama”. Only weeks after the first series ended, ITV announced a second series, and production started in early 2008. The third series aired in early 2010 almost simultaneously on ITV2 and the US station SHO. In April 2010 reports claim there will be a fourth series for which Billie Piper will get £2m. …”

Sex in Advertising

“…Sex in advertising is the use of sexual or erotic imagery (also called “sex appeal”) in advertising to draw interest to a particular product, for purpose of sale. A feature of sex in advertising is that the imagery used, such as that of a pretty woman, typically has no connection to the product being advertised. The purpose of the imagery is to attract the attention of the potential customer or user. The type of imagery that may be used is very broad, and would include nudity, cheesecake, and beefcake, even if it is often only suggestively sexual. …”

“…The use of sex in advertising can be highly overt or extremely subtle. It ranges from relatively explicit displays of sexual acts, to the use of basic cosmetics to enhance attractive features.

Over the past two decades, the use of increasingly explicit sexual imagery in consumer-oriented print advertising has become almost commonplace. Sexuality is considered one of the most powerful tools of marketing and particularly advertising[citation needed]. Post-advertising sales response studies have shown it can be very effective for attracting immediate interest, holding that interest, and, in the context of that interest, introducing a product that somehow correlates with that interest.

Gallup & Robinson, an advertising and marketing research firm, has reported that in more than 50 years of testing advertising effectiveness, it has found the use of the erotic to be a significantly above-average technique in communicating with the marketplace, “…although one of the more dangerous for the advertiser. Weighted down with taboos and volatile attitudes, sex is a Code Red advertising technique … handle with care … seller beware; all of which makes it even more intriguing.” This research has led to the popular idea that “sex sells”.

In contemporary mainstream consumer advertising (e.g., magazines, network and cable television), sex is present in promotional messages for a wide range of branded goods. Ads feature provocative images of well-defined women (and men) in revealing outfits and postures selling clothing, alcohol, beauty products, and fragrances. Advertisers such as Calvin Klein, Victoria’s Secret, and Pepsi use these images to cultivate a ubiquitous sex-tinged media presence. Also, sexual information is used to promote mainstream products not traditionally associated with sex. For example, the Dallas Opera recent reversal of declining ticket sales has been attributed to the marketing of the more lascivious parts of its performances (Chism, 1999).[1] …”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Chapter 10–Advertising

Posted on June 11, 2010. Filed under: Advertising, Art, Communications, Mass Media, Movies, Print Media, Radio, Recordings, Television | Tags: , , |


1. Cite the major landmarks in the development of advertising. What did each development contribute to advertising’s evolution?

2. Why is advertising not a medium? What role does it play in the mass media?

 Advertising carries the message that come to you from the sponsors who pay for the American media

The media can be newspapaer, magazines, radio, television, or the Internet.

Advertising messages are carried by the vaious media.

Advertising provides much if not all of the revenue for media companies such as book, newspaper and magazine publishers and radio and television stations.

3. How did each of the following people contribute to the development of American advertising?
William Caxton b. Cyrus H.K. Curtis c. P.T. Barnum

4. What are the common characteristics of American advertising, according to Daniel Boorstin? Explain each.

The three common characteristics of American advertising are repetition, style, and ubiguity.

Repetition is the delivery of the same message multiple times in order that consumer get the message.

5. What are the three main arguments given by advertising’s critics and by its supporters?

Advertising adds to the cost of products.

Advertising causes people to buy products they do not need.

Advertising reduces competition and thereby fosters monopolies.

6. What are the benefits to an advertiser of TV over print? Of print over TV?

7. What is the relationship between TV ratings and TV advertising?

8. Discuss the Seagram’s company’s change of position on advertising hard liquor on TV. Do you agree with this decision? Why or why not? How do ads for hard liquor compare to ads for beer and wine on TV?

9. Discuss the pros and cons of advertising on the Internet for advertisers. What are the pros and cons for consumers?

10. Discuss four of Jib Fowles’ 15 psychological appeals for advertising in some detail, explaining how they can work on consumers.

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Chapter 7–Movies

Posted on June 11, 2010. Filed under: Art, Communications, Mass Media, Movies | Tags: , , , , , |


1. Cite the major landmarks in the development of the movie industry from 1882 to today.

(See “Timeframe,” Chapter 9.) What did each development contribute to the movie industry’s evolution?

1877: Eadweard Muybridge catches motion on film when he uses 12 cameras to photograph a horse’s movements for Leland Stanford in Palo Alto, California.

1915: Director D.W. Griffith introduces the concept of the movie spectacular with The Birth of a Nation.

1916: Brothers Noble and George Johnson launch Lincoln Films, the first company to produce serious narrative movies for African-American audiences which are called race films.

1927: The Jazz Singer opens in New York, the first feature-length motion picture with sound.

1930: The Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association (MPPDA) adopts a production code to control movie content.

1947: The Hollywood Ten are called to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee.

1949: The U.S. Supreme Court breaks up the large studios’ control of Hollywood by deciding in the case of United States v. Paramount that the studios are a monopoly.

1966: The Motion Picture Producers Association (MPPA) introduces a voluntary content ratings system for the movies.

1994: Steven Spielberg, Jeffrey Katzenberg and David Geffen launch DreamWorks SKG, the first new movie studio created in the United States since United Artists.

2001: The Motion Picture Association of America (MPPA) challenges the availability of recordable DVD technology (DVD-R).

Today: Movie theaters collect about one billion tickets a year, but more people see movies on video than in movie theaters.

2. Which viewer age category is most attractive to today’s moviemakers? Why?

Moviemakers aim for the over age 30 mature audience and for the under age 20 audience.

These two groups have the highest percentage of yearly admissions especially the age 30-39 and age 16-20 groups.

3. What did Thomas Edison hope to accomplish with the creation of the Motion Picture Patents Company? Did he succeed? Why or why not?

Thomas Edison primary reason for creating the Motion Picture Patents Company was to control movie distribution.

Thomas Edison created the Motion Picture Patents Company also known as the Edison Trust of all the major film producing companies, the leading distributor, and the biggest supplier of raw film to end the domination of foreign films in America and standardize the manner of distribution and exhibition of films and improve the quality of American films by competition within the MPPC.

The American Biograph and Mutoscope Company or Biograph manufactured better quality motion picture  cameras than Edison. Biograph signed the agreement with Edison to form MPPC in 1908.

At first Edison did not succeed because Biograph had a better camera and had not signed the licensing agreement. Biograph had also purchased the  Latham film loop, a key feature of nearly all motion picture cameras then in use. Edison attempted to get control of the patent by suing Biograph, but lost in the Federal courts.

Edison entered into negotiations with Biograph in 1908 who signed the licensing agreement on key patents.

MPCC eliminated the outright sale of films to distributors and exhibitors.

Rentals of movies to distributors  and exhibitors resulted in a better quality prints being shown.

  Motion Picture Patents Company

“…The Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC, also known as the Edison Trust), founded in December 1908, was a trust of all the major American film companies (Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Selig, Lubin, Kalem, American Star, American Pathé), the leading distributor (George Kleine) and the biggest supplier of raw film, Eastman Kodak. The MPPC ended the domination of foreign films on American screens, standardized the manner in which films were distributed and exhibited in America, and improved the quality of American motion pictures by internal competition. But it also discouraged its members’ entry into feature film production, and the use of outside financing, both to its members’ eventual detriment. …”

4. How did each of the following people contribute to the development of the movies?

a. Eadweard Muybridge in 1877 at Stanford University built a special track in Palo Alto, to photograph  a horse as it moved around the track. The horse tripped a series of equidistant wire as it ran. The photographs showed that all four legs were off the ground. Leland Stanford won a bet that this was the case. Muybridge caught the motion of the horses movements.

b. Thomas Edison was granted a patent for a motion picture camera, the kinetograph, and developed a movie projector, the kinetoscope, that were installed in penny arcades. He also founded the Motion Picture Patents Company to control the distribution and quality of movies seen by the public.

c. Mary Pickford was a Canadian born American movie actress, silent movie star,  and one of the founders of United Artist. She  first worked for Biograph but switched to Carl Laemmle’s independent production company when he doubled her salary. She contributed to the development of movies by being a movie star in silent movies that attracted movie audiences. The star system was used by the independents movie producers to build the movie going public. 

d. D.W. Griffith was the first movie director titan of silent movies who introduced the idea of spectacular entertainment.  He directed over 450 movies for Biograph over a five-year period at a rate of 2 or 3 per week. He expanded the duration of movies from two reels, each 25 minutes long, to four reels. These movies were a feature length film. Griffith is best known for his classic movie, The Birth of A Nation which told the story of the Civil War and the Reconstruction era. Griffith’s subsequent films showed the potential movies had as a mass communication media. He proved that people would pay money to see a motion picture and moved movies from the Nickelodeon to the big screen and respectability.

First Motion Picture Horse, 1878

Eadweard J. Muybridge 

“…Eadweard J. Muybridge (pronounced /ˌɛdwərd ˈmaɪbrɪdʒ/; 9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904) was an English photographer who spent much of his life in the United States. He is known primarily for his important pioneering work on animal locomotion, with use of multiple cameras to capture motion, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip that is used today.[1] …”

Thomas Edison

“…The key to Edison’s fortunes was telegraphy. With knowledge gained from years of working as a telegraph operator, he learned the basics of electricity. This allowed him to make his early fortune with the stock ticker, the first electricity-based broadcast system. Edison patented the sound recording and reproducing phonograph in 1878. Edison was also granted a patent for the motion picture camera or “Kinetograph”. He did the electromechanical design, while his employee W.K.L. Dickson, a photographer, worked on the photographic and optical development. Much of the credit for the invention belongs to Dickson.[27] In 1891, Thomas Edison built a Kinetoscope, or peep-hole viewer. This device was installed in penny arcades, where people could watch short, simple films. The kinetograph and kinetoscope were both first publicly exhibited May 20, 1891.[45]

On August 9, 1892, Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph. In April 1896, Thomas Armat’s Vitascope, manufactured by the Edison factory and marketed in Edison’s name, was used to project motion pictures in public screenings in New York City. Later he exhibited motion pictures with voice soundtrack on cylinder recordings, mechanically synchronized with the film.

The key to Edison’s fortunes was telegraphy. With knowledge gained from years of working as a telegraph operator, he learned the basics of electricity. This allowed him to make his early fortune with the stock ticker, the first electricity-based broadcast system. Edison patented the sound recording and reproducing phonograph in 1878. Edison was also granted a patent for the motion picture camera or “Kinetograph”. He did the electromechanical design, while his employee W.K.L. Dickson, a photographer, worked on the photographic and optical development. Much of the credit for the invention belongs to Dickson.[27] In 1891, Thomas Edison built a Kinetoscope, or peep-hole viewer. This device was installed in penny arcades, where people could watch short, simple films. The kinetograph and kinetoscope were both first publicly exhibited May 20, 1891.[45]

On August 9, 1892, Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph. In April 1896, Thomas Armat’s Vitascope, manufactured by the Edison factory and marketed in Edison’s name, was used to project motion pictures in public screenings in New York City. Later he exhibited motion pictures with voice soundtrack on cylinder recordings, mechanically synchronized with the film. …”

Mary Pickford


Mary Pickford

“…Mary Pickford (April 8, 1892 – May 29, 1979) was a Canadian-born American motion picture actress, co-founder of the film studio United Artists and one of the original 36 founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Known as “America’s Sweetheart,” “Little Mary” and “The girl with the curls,” she was one of the Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood and a significant figure in the development of film acting.

Because her international fame was triggered by moving images, she is a watershed figure in the history of modern celebrity. And as one of silent film’s most important performers and producers, her contract demands were central to shaping the Hollywood industry. In consideration of her contributions to American cinema, the American Film Institute named Pickford 24th among the greatest female stars of all time. …”

D. W. Griffith

“…David Llewelyn Wark Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was a premier pioneering American film director. He is best known as the director of the controversial and groundbreaking 1915 film The Birth of a Nation and the subsequent film Intolerance (1916).[1]

Griffith’s film The Birth of a Nation made pioneering use of advanced camera and narrative techniques, and its immense popularity set the stage for the dominance of the feature-length film. However, it also proved extremely controversial at the time and ever since for its negative depiction of Black Americans and their supporters, and its positive portrayal of slavery and the Ku Klux Klan. Griffith responded to his critics with his next film, Intolerance, intended to show the dangers of prejudiced thought and behavior. The film was not the financial success that its predecessor had been, but was received warmly by critics. Several of his later films were also successful, but high production, promotional, and roadshow costs often made his ventures commercial failures. However, he is generally considered one of the most important figures of early cinema. …”

5. What were “race movies?” Discuss the ways in which these films changed the perspective of African-Americans in the films and to African-American audiences.

Race movies were movies specifically made for  Southern African-American audiences barred from white-owned theaters. The movies were shown in black-owned movie palaces of the urban North and Midwest or in “midnight rambles”–special midnight to 2 p.m. screenings in rented halls or segregated theaters of the South. These movies changed the perspective of African-Americans. The movies showed black millionaires, black heroes and heroines as well as black villains. The race movies changed the perspective of African-Americans when all the actors and actresses were black and played the various roles. The audiences saw that African-Americans could be successful in the movie industry.

6. What was the effect of the practice of block booking on the movie industry? How and why did the practice end?

A movie production company would license theaters to show a package or block of movies.  This was called block booking. While this package included a few well-known name pictures with stars, the majority of the  movies in the package or block were light weight features with no stars. Since what was showing at a movie theater changed twice per week, the theater owners were desperate for movies to exhibit. As a result, movie exhibitors accepted the producer or distributors prices and packages.

The practice ended with when the movie studios agreed to a settlement of an antitrust suit with the U.S. Justice Department  in 1938.

This settlement limited block booking to five films and stopped blind booking where the exhibitors did not see the picture before they rented them.

7. Hollywood’s response to the movie scandals of the 1920s was self-regulation. Which events affected the evolution of self-regulation from 1922 to 1956?

The Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association hired Will Hays as its President. Hays suspended all of Fatty Arbuckle;s films. Arbuckle was a movie star accused of murder who after three trials was acquitted. The MPPDA was often referred to as the Hays committee and was responsible for overseeing the stars’ personal behavior and the content of the movie. An acceptable movie displayed a seal of approval in the titles at the beginning of each picture. The MPPDA also adopted a production code.

In 1953 Otto Preminger challenged the movies’ self-regulating agency, the Production Code Administration. United Artist agreed to release the movie, The Blue Moon. The PCA denied a certificate of approval because it contained risqué language.

In 1956, United Artist released Otto Preminger’s movie The Man with the Golden Arm.

This movie was about drug addiction. This broke the PCA restrictions.

8. Why do you believe the Hollywood Ten became a target of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)?

The Hollywood Ten became a target of the House Un-American Activities because of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union and Communist China and the fear of Communist subversion including those working in the entertainment industry of movies and television. The Hollywood Ten were members of the Communist Party or former members and were mostly screenwriters. They were asked the question were they in the past or currently members of the Communist Party and refused to answer the question. For refusing to answer the questions, they were cited for contempt of Congress.

Background Information

Hollywood ‘Red’ Probe, HUAC Hearings Begin 1947/10/20

Hollywood ‘Red’ Probe, HUAC Hearings Begin 1947/10/20

1950’s Cold War Propaganda – Communism Vs Capitalism

The Hollywood Ten – McCarthyism Communist Hunts


The Hollywood Ten (Part 1 of 2)

The Hollywood Ten (Part 2 of 2)

Hollywood blacklist

“…The Hollywood blacklist—as the broader entertainment industry blacklist is generally known—was the mid-twentieth-century list of screenwriters, actors, directors, musicians, and other U.S. entertainment professionals who were denied employment in the field because of their political beliefs or associations, real or suspected. Artists were barred from work on the basis of their alleged membership in or sympathy toward the American Communist Party, involvement in liberal or humanitarian political causes that enforcers of the blacklist associated with communism, and/or refusal to assist investigations into Communist Party activities; some were blacklisted merely because their names came up at the wrong place and time. Even during the period of its strictest enforcement, the late 1940s through the late 1950s, the blacklist was rarely made explicit and verifiable, but it caused direct damage to the careers of scores of American artists, often made betrayal of friendship (not to mention principle) the price for a livelihood, and promoted ideological censorship across the entire industry.

The first systematic Hollywood blacklist was instituted on November 25, 1947, the day after ten writers and directors were cited for contempt of Congress for refusing to give testimony to the House Committee on Un-American Activities. A group of studio executives, acting under the aegis of the Motion Picture Association of America, announced the firing of the artists—the so-called Hollywood Ten—in what has become known as the Waldorf Statement. On June 22, 1950, a pamphlet called Red Channels appeared, focusing on the field of broadcasting. It named 151 entertainment industry professionals in the context of “Red Fascists and their sympathizers”; soon most of those named, along with a host of other artists, were barred from employment in much of the entertainment field. The blacklist was effectively broken in 1960 when Dalton Trumbo, an unrepentant member of the Hollywood Ten, was publicly acknowledged as the screenwriter of the films Spartacus and Exodus. A number of those blacklisted, however, were still barred from work in their professions for years afterward …”

The Big Lie in Hollywood: The Hollywood Ten Were Not Victims But Villains


by Dan Georgakas

9. What effect does ancillary rights have on moviemaking today? Why?

Most movies today are sold as packages and funded through ancillary right sales. As a result independent filmmaking is difficult. Ancillary rights include (1)VHS and DVD rights, (2) pay television rights, (3) network television rights, (4) syndication rights to independent T.V. stations,(5) airline rights for in-flight movies, (6) military rights on military bases, (7) college rights to show films on campus, (8) song rights for the soundtrack,  and (9) book publishing rights for original screenplays.

Movies thus need to have ancillary right potential if they need a large budget. If a movie does not have this potential, they will have a low-budget or will not be made.  The movie studios select projects that have proven audience attracting ideas and high ancillary right potential

10. How will new technologies, including recordable DVDs, change the movie industry?

New technologies, including recordable DVD, will change  the movie industry because they pose a serious copyright challenge which the industry is attempting to stop or at least minimize.

Computer software applications enable independent moviemakers to create movies relatively inexpensively and distribute them over the Internet.

Digital projectors allow theaters to receive movies by satellite and videodisc. This makes movie distribution cheaper and faster.

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )

Chapter 5–Recordings

Posted on June 11, 2010. Filed under: Art, Communications, Mass Media, Music, Recordings | Tags: |


1. Describe the battle waged between Thomas Edison and Emile Berliner. Whose technology ended up as the industry standard? Why?

Thomas Edison invented the phonograph in 1877 which used a round cylinder as the device for storing  the recording of sounds.

Emile Berliner developed the gramophone in 1887 which used flat discs or records as the device  for storing the recorded sounds.

Berliner was the first to record on flat discs or records. The flat discs were first made of glass, then zinc and finally plastic.

Berliner’s technology became the industry standard.

The flat discs or records could be mass-produced by using a master recording to create a mold from which hundreds of discs or records could be pressed. 

Background Information

Emile Berliner – The History of the Gramophone

Emile Berliner

Berliner Gramophone

“…Berliner Gramophone (also known as E. Berliner’s Gramophone) was an early record label, the first company to produce disc “gramophone records” (as opposed to the earlier phonograph cylinder records). …”


gramophone record

“…A gramophone record, commonly known as a phonograph record (in American English), vinyl record (when made of polyvinyl chloride), or simply record, is an analog sound storage medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the centre of the disc. Phonograph records are generally described by their size (“12-inch”, “10-inch”, “7-inch”, etc.), the rotational speed at which they are played (“33 r.p.m.”, “45”, “78”, etc.), their time capacity (“Long Playing”), their reproductive accuracy, or “fidelity”, or the number of channels of audio provided (“Mono”, “Stereo”, “Quadraphonic”, etc.). (See below.)

Gramophone records were the primary medium used for commercial music reproduction for most of the 20th century, replacing the phonograph cylinder, with which they had co-existed, by the 1920s. By the late 1980s, digital media had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991.[1][2] However, they continue to be manufactured and sold in the 21st century. The vinyl record regained popularity by 2008, with nearly 2.9 million units shipped that year, the most in any year since 1998.[3] They are used predominantly by young adults, as well as DJs and audiophiles for many types of music. As of 2010, vinyl records continue to be used for distribution of independent and alternative music artists. More mainstream pop releases tend to be mostly sold in compact disc or other digital formats, but have still been released in vinyl in certain instances. …”

2. Cite the major landmarks in the development of the recording industry from 1877 to today. (See “Timeframe,” Chapter 7.) What did each development contribute to the recording industry’s evolution?

1887: Thomas Edison first demonstrates the phonograph.

1943: Ampex develops tape recorders and Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing perfects plastic recording tape.

1947: Peter Goldmark develops the long-playing record working for William S Paley at CBS.

1956: Stereo arrives

1958: Motown introduces the “Detroit Sound” of African-American artists, popularizing rock and roll.

1970: Devid Giffen starts Asylum Records.

1979: Sony introduces the Walkman as a personal stereo.

1985: The recording industry begins to consolidate into six major international corporations. Only one of these companies is based in the United States.

2001: Napster, file-sharing software designed to download music on the Internet, shuts down after Recording Industry Association of American (RIAA) sues for copyright infringement.

Today: The recording industry earns more than half its revenue from people under 34, and the industry is fighting copyright infringement on the Internet to protect earnings.

3. Describe the competition between William Paley’s 33-1/3 records and David Sarnoff’s 45s. How was that battle resolved?

William Paley introduced long-playing or LP records (331/3 rpm) disc.s

Paley at CBS contacted David Sarnoff at RCA who manufactured record players and proposed they form a partnership to  produce LP records and record players.

Instead Sarnoff introduced RCA’s own 7 inch, 45 rpm records in 1948.

The 45s required a different record player which RCA started to produce.

The 45s were ideal for jukeboxes

Eventually, Sarnoff  and RCA agreed to produce record players that could play the LPs with 331/3 speed on RCA record players.

CBS also agreed to use 45s for its popular songs.

Eventually, record players were made that could play all three record speeds–331/3 rpm, 45 rpm and 78 rpm.

4. Why are the recording industry and the radio industry so interdependent?

The recording industry needs the playing of its records on radio stations with a music format to make a record known and popular with an audience so as to motivate them to buy the recording.

These radio stations in turn need the record companies to provide content or records to play on their music format show.

Both the recording companies and radio stations that play music need each other to be profitable and successful.

5. What do the following parts of the recording industry do?

a. Artists and repertoire or A&R finds, develops and coordinates the talent and is like an editorial department in a book publishing company.

 b. Operations manages the technical aspects of the recording and centers on creating the master recording from which all other recording are made. Operations oversees the musicians, sound technicians and engineers.

c. Distribution responsible for getting the recording into the stores where the recording are sold to consumers. Independent distributors contract separately with different companies to deliver their recording. Branches are connected with the record companies and can usually offer higher discounts to the stores selling the recordings.

6. How did each of the following people contribute to the evolution of the American recording industry?

a. Thomas Edison
 invented the phonograph which used round cylinders for the recordings and first demonstrated the phonograph in 1877.

b. Emile Berliner developed the gramophone in 1887 and used flat discs or records for the recordings. The flat discs enable the mass production of recordings. Berliner and Eldridge Johnson formed the Victor Talking machine Company (later renamed RCA Victor) to sell the recording and record players.

c. Peter Goldmark developed the long-playing (LP) microgroove 33-1/3 rpm vinyl phonograph disc while working for William S. Paley at CBS.

Background Information

Thomas Edison

“…Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed “The Wizard of Menlo Park” (now Edison, New Jersey) by a newspaper reporter, he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large teamwork to the process of invention, and therefore is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.

Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding 1,093 U.S. patents in his name, as well as many patents in United Kingdom, France, and Germany. He is credited with numerous inventions that contributed to mass communication and, in particular, telecommunications. His advanced work in these fields was an outgrowth of his early career as a telegraph operator. Edison originated the concept and implementation of electric-power generation and distribution to homes, businesses, and factories – a crucial development in the modern industrialized world. His first power station was on Manhattan Island, New York. …”

Emile Berliner

“…Emile Berliner (May 20, 1851 – August 3, 1929) was a German naturalized American inventor. He is best known for developing the disc record gramophone (phonograph in American English). He founded The Berliner Gramophone Company in 1895, The Gramophone Company in London, England, in 1897, Deutsche Grammophon in Hanover, Germany, in 1898 and Berliner Gram-o-phone Company of Canada in Montreal in 1899 (chartered in 1904). …”

Peter Goldmark

“…Peter Carl Goldmark (Hungarian: Goldmark Péter Károly) (December 7, 1906 – December 7, 1977) was a German-Hungarian engineer who, during his time with Columbia Records, was instrumental in developing the long-playing (LP) microgroove 33-1/3 rpm vinyl phonograph disc, the standard for incorporating multiple or lengthy recorded works on a single disc for two generations. The LP was introduced by Columbia’s Goddard Lieberson (April 5, 1911 – May 29, 1977) in 1948. Lieberson was later president of Columbia Records from 1956–71 and 1973–75.

7. Describe how each of the following issues has affected the recording industry:

a. Piracyaffects the recording industry by the loss of substantial income when people make their own records on tapes and CDs

 b. Authenticity of performances in terms of their quality was affected by th expansion of the mp3 digital technology in 1999 that allows any computer user with an Internet connection to download music. The recording companies were challenged to protect a digital copy of music from copyright infringement and piracy. The recording industry would be substantially affected by loss of income from lost sales due to downloading on music.

c. Record labeling for explicit content affected the recording when in 1985 the Parents Music Resource Center called for the recording companies to explicit label the content of their recordings. The Recoding Industry Association of America whose member companies sell over 95 percent of U.S. recording sales officially urged its members to provide a warning label or to print lyrics on albums that have potentially offensive content. The RIAA favored self-regulation over government intervention or regulation.

d. Copyright infringement by a music sharing company and web site resulted in a 1999 law suit for copyright infringement by the Record Industry Association of America (RIAA). was shut-down in 2001 and its software used by German media giant Bertelsmann.

8. Describe at least three of the major challenges affecting the recording industry today.

One major challenge of the recording industry is to develop a way to protect against a digital copy of a recoding being made using newer technology and distributed over the Internet.

Another major challenge is policing the downloading of copyrighted music on the Internet without paying royalties namely, online music piracy.  The negative economic implications of widespread downloading of  copyrighted music  for free is substantial.

Music Piracy

Fighting Music Piracy



A third major challenge is  overseas copying of cassettes, CDs, and DVDs which are then shipped and sold within the United States. This piracy

 HARDtalk: The Music Industry – Digital Music & Piracy




9. Name the big five companies of the recording industry. How do they control most of the music heard in the world?

The big four companies of the recording industry in 2009 were:

1. Universal Music Group

2. Sony Music Entertainment

3. Warner Music Group

4. EMI Group

A fifth company Bertelsmann Music Group, (BMG), a division of Bertelsmann was sold by to  Sony Corporation of America on October 1, 2008.

The big four control most of the music heard in the world today by deciding which groups are recorded. Increasingly the big four concentrate on fewer groups. This means fewer records are produced and sold.

Background Information

Universal Music Group (UMG)

“…Universal Music Group (UMG) is the largest business group and family of record labels in the recording industry. It is the largest of the “big four” record companies by its commanding market share and its multitude of global operations. Universal Music Group is a wholly owned subsidiary of international French media conglomerate Vivendi.

Universal Music Group owns a music publisher, Universal Music Publishing Group, which became the world’s largest following the acquisition of BMG Music Publishing in May 2007.

Vivendi’s headquarters are in Paris, France. The UMG global headquarters are located New York City. Other major offices are located in Universal City and Santa Monica, along with Universal Music Group Nashville in Nashville; in the UK the group has a number of offices in London and Romford.

Sony Music Entertainment

“…Sony Music Entertainment (or Sony Music) is the second-largest global recorded music company of the “big four” record companies and is controlled by Sony Corporation of America. …”

Warner Music Group

“…Warner Music Group is the third largest business group and family of record labels in the recording industry, making it one of the big four record companies. The current incarnation of the company was formed in 2004 when it was spun off from Time Warner, and as a result, Time Warner no longer retains any ownership. Warner Music Group also has a music publishing arm called Warner/Chappell Music, which is currently one of the world’s largest music-publishing companies. …”

EMI Group

“…The EMI Group (Electric & Musical Industries Ltd.) is a British music company. It is the fourth-largest business group and family of record labels in the recording industry, making it one of the “big four” record companies and a member of the RIAA. EMI Group also has a major publishing arm – EMI Music Publishing – based in New York City. The company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index but is now wholly owned by Terra Firma Capital Partners. …”

Bertelsmann Music Group

10. Give a brief history of ASCAP and BMI. When was each formed? How do they differ today?

The American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) was founded in 1914 and was the first licensing organization. ASCAP sued the radio broadcasting stations in the 1920s that were playing recorded music but not paying royalties. Eventually many radio stations agreed to pay ASCAP royalties under an annual fee that allowed the stations to play any music ASCAP licensed.

In the Great Depression of the 1930s, many radio stations refused to pay the royalties because they simply did not have the money to pay the annual fee. These stations formed a separate group in 1939 to build their own music collection through Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI).

As a result ASCAP and BMI became competitors using the same blanket licensing agreement and collecting payments from broadcasting stations and dividing the royalties among its artists.

Today most broadcasters subscribe to both ASCAP and BMI and agree to play only licensed artists. This makes it difficult for new artists new talent. ASCAP and BMI use the paid royalties to in turn pay the authors, recording artists, producers and even the recording companies depending upon whoever owns the right to the music.

American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers

“…The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) is a not-for-profit performance rights organization that protects its members’ musical copyrights by monitoring public performances of their music, whether via a broadcast or live performance, and compensating them accordingly.

ASCAP collects licensing fees from users of music created by ASCAP members, then distributes them back to its members as royalties. In effect, the arrangement is the product of a compromise: when a song is played, the user does not have to pay the copyright holder directly, nor does the music creator have to bill a radio station for use of a song.

In 2008, ASCAP collected over US$933 million in licensing fees and distributed US$817 million in royalties to its members, with an 11.3% operating expense ratio.[1] In the United States, ASCAP competes with two other performing rights organizations: Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI) and the Society of European Stage Authors and Composers (SESAC). …”,_Authors_and_Publishers

Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI)

“…Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI) is one of three United States performing rights organizations, along with ASCAP and SESAC. It collects license fees on behalf of songwriters, composers, and music publishers and distributes them as royalties to those members whose works have been performed. In 2009, BMI collected over US$905 million in licensing fees and distributed US$788 million in royalties.[1]

BMI affiliates include pop music artists such as Mariah Carey and Christina Aguilera, as well as composers such as Osvaldo Golijov and John Williams. …”

Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( 1 so far )

Liked it here?
Why not try sites on the blogroll...