Recordings

News Journal: Number 35, December 1, 2010: The Audacity of Grope: A TSA Exposé–Progressive Pervert Petulent Prevaricating President–Must View Video!

Posted on December 1, 2010. Filed under: Communications, Democratic Party, Digital Communication, Ethical Practices, Ethics, Issues, Law, Mass Media, News, Newspapers, Policies, Political Parties, Politics, Print Media, Public Relations, Radio, Recordings, Republican Party, Society, Speech, Television, Web | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , |

Campaign for Liberty launches a public relations campaign against President Obama’s TSA government interventionism:

“…Got questions about the TSA? This video’s got answers. Jam-packed with all the information you need to get up to speed on the 2010 holiday airport security uproar. Get the inside scoop on full body scanners, radiation health risks, pat-downs, screw-ups, underwear bombers, cavity searches, special interests, government officials, the Constitution (specifically, the 4th Amendment), scanner storage capability, and hear from some of the most engaged minds in the debate; including Congressman Ron Paul…”

Campaign for Liberty Mission Statement

“Our mission is to promote and defend the great American principles of individual liberty, constitutional government, sound money, free markets, and a noninterventionist foreign policy, by means of educational and political activity.”

http://www.campaignforliberty.com/about.php

http://www.youtube.com/user/campaignforliberty

One point that the above video failed to address is the spread of disease as a direct result of the TSA not changing their blue gloves after each pat down.

Instead the TSA screeners use the same pair of blue gloves most of the day.

Imagine going to a doctor or dentist who wore the same blue gloves while examining many patients during the day.

An unintended consequence of the government grope will be the spread of the various influenza (flu) viruses.

The time has come to stop this security theater nonsense and start profiling passengers and targeting individuals that are more likely to be terrorist bombers.

Flawless Airline Security on Israeli Planes

TSA: Enemy of the American People?

Ron Paul: TSA Has Gone too Far

Enough is enough.

Terminate the TSA peepers and pat downs.

President Obama responds:

President Obama explains the new TSA Airport Security Screenings

Wink

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Producing Talk And Voice-Overs–Videos

Posted on October 15, 2010. Filed under: Acoustics, Audio, Communications, Digital Communication, Loudspeakers, Radio, Recordings, Sound, Speech, Television | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , |

How to Set Up PA Systems : Basic Microphone Placement for PA System Setup

School radio studio tour

How a Radio Station Works : Radio DJ Microphone Placement

Audio-Technica Studio Recording Microphones w/ AVGIANT at NAMM

1. The production chain (in non-music production) generally begins with the talking performer and therefore involves considerations that relate to producing speech.

2. How speech is produced depends on (1) the type of program or production; (2) the medium–radio, TV, film–and, in TV and film, whether the production technique is single– or multicamera; (3) whether it is done in the studio ori n the field; and (4) whether it is live, live-on-tape, or produced for later release.

3. The frequency range of the human voice is not wide compared with that of other instruments. The adult male’s fundamental voicing frequencies are from roughly 80 to 240 Hz; for the adult female, they are from roughly 140 to 500 Hz. Harmonics and overtones carry theses ranges somewhat higher. (Ranges for the singing voice are significantly wider).

4. Speech intelligibilty is at a maximum when levels are about 70 to 90 dB-SP. Certain frequencies, particularly in the midrange, are also more critical to speech intelligibility than others.

5. Acoustical phase refers to the time relationship between two (or more) sound waves at a given point in their cycles. Electrical phase refers to the relative electrical polarity of two signals n the same circuit. When these waves or polarities are in phase–roughly coincident in time–their amplitudes are additive. When these waves or polarities are out of phase–not coincident in time–their amplitudes are reduced.

6. Evaluation of a microphone for speech includes at least four criteria: clarity, presence, richness, and versatility.

7. The closer a microphone is placed to a sound sources, the closer to the audience the sound source is perceived to be and the warmer, denser, bassier, drier, more intimate, and more detailed is the perceived sound.

8. The farther a microphone is placed from a sound source, the farther from the audience the sound source is perceived to be and the more distant, diffused, open, spacious, reverberant, and detached, and the less detailed is the perceived sound.

9. In selecting and positioning a mic, keep excessive sound that is reflected from room surfaces, furniture, and equipment from reaching the mic, or comb filtering can result. Choose a mic and position it to avoid sibilance, plosives, and breath sounds.

10. In monaural sound aural space is one-dimensional–measured in terms of depth–so perspective is near-to-far.

11. In stereo sound aural space is two-dimensional–measured in terms of depth and breadth–so perspectives are near-to-far and side-t0-side.

12. In stereo miking the angle or distance between the two microphones (or microphone capsules) determines side-to-side perspective. The smaller the angle or distance between the mics, the narrower the left-to-right stereo image; the larger the angle or distance, the wider the left-to-right image.

13. In disc jockey, interview, and panel programs, the participants should sound as though they are coming from the front and center of the aural space. With more than one participant, using individual microphones, the loudness levels for the participants must be similar if the sound is to be perceived as coming from the front and center of the aural space.

14. The overall sound of a radio station involves the particular music or talk format, the announcer’s delivery style, the production style of the spot announcements and jingles, and how tightly presented they all are.

15. The techniques used to mike speech for picture in television and film (and to produce sound, in general) may depend on whether the production is broadcast live, or live-on-tape, or is taped/filmed for showing at a later date.

16. In radio microphones can be placed anywhere without regard for appearance so long as the participants are comfortable and the mics do not get in their way. If the radio program is also televised, some care for appearance should be taken. In television, if a mic is in the picture, it should be good-looking and positioned so that it does not obscure the performer;s face. If it is not in the picture, it must be positioned close enough to the performer so that the sound is on-mic.

17. Generally, for optimal sound pickup the recommended placement for a mini-mic is in the area of the performer’s sternum, about 6 to 8 inches below the chin.

18. Hiding a mini-mic under clothing requires that the mic and mic cable are or can be made insensitive to rustling sounds and that the clothing be made of material that is less likely to make those sounds.

19. In television a desk mic is often used as a prop. If the desk mic is live, make sure it does not block the performer’s face, interfere with the performer’s frontal working space, pr pick up studio noises.

20.The handheld mic allows the host to control audience questioning and mic-to-source distance and, like the desk mic, helps generate a closer psychological rapport with the audience.

21. The boom microphone, like the mini-mic hidden under clothing, is used when mics must be out of the picture. Often one boom mic covers more than one performer. To provide adequate sound pickup, and to move the boom at the right time to the right place, the boom operator must anticipate when one performer is about to stop talking and another is to start.

22. Different techniques are used in controlling levels, leakage, and feedback of mic feeds from multiple sound sources: following the three-t0-one rule, moderate limiting or compression noise gating, or using an automatic microphone mixer.

23. If an audience is present, it must be miked to achieve an overall sound blend and to prevent one voice or group of voices from predominating.

24. Increasing audience laugher or applause, or both, by using recorded laugher or applause tracks adds to a program’s spontaneity and excitement.

25. Recording speech begins with good acoustics. Mediocre acoustics can make speech sound boxy, oppressive, lifeless, ringy, or hollow.

26. Recording speech generally involves either the voiceover–recording copy to which other sonic material is added–or dialogue. Voice-over material includes short-form material, such as spot announcements, and long-form material, such as documentaries and audiobooks.

27. Recording a solo performer and a microphone is a considerable challenge: there is no place to hide.

28. Among the things to avoid in recording speech are plosives, sibilance, breathiness, and tongue and lip smacks.

29. Three types of narration are direct, indirect, and contrapuntal.

30. It is often not so much what is said, but how is said that conveys the overall meaning of a message.

31. Voice acting involves “taking the words off the page” and making them believable and memorable.

32. Among the considerations a voice actor comes to grips with in bringing the appropriate delivery to copy are voice quality, message, audience, word values, and character.

33. Studio intercommunication systems are vital in coordinating the functions of the production team. Three types of studio intercom systems are the private line or phone line–PL; studio address–SA: and interruptible foldback–IFB.

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News Journal: Number 26, October 15, 2010: Printing More Money (Quantitative Easing) and The Coming Currency War and Decline In The Purchasing Power of The U.S. Dollar–Robbing The American People–Videos

Posted on October 15, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Books, Communications, Digital Communication, Issues, Law, Magazines, Mass Media, News, Newspapers, Politics, Print Media, Recordings, Society, Sound, Television | Tags: , , , , , , , , |

“True, governments can reduce the rate of interest in the short run. They can issue additional paper money. They can open the way to credit expansion by the banks. They can thus create an artificial boom and the appearance of prosperity. But such a boom is bound to collapse soon or late and to bring about a depression.”

“The gold standard alone makes the determination of moneys purchasing power independent of the ambitions and machinations of governments, of dictators, of political parties, and of pressure groups.”

~Ludwig von Mises

Jim Rogers Currency Wars

“IMF Meeting Stokes Fear of Currency War”

Grant Says Quantitative Easing Is Just Money Printing: Video

Global Currency War Brewing

Is The World On The Verge Of A Currency War?

Daniel Rosen: Currency War

IMF Meeting Stokes Fear of Currency War

Webster Tarpley: “There’s a currency war!”

Heller Says `Very Difficult’ for Fed to Boost Growth: Video

Feldstein Predicts Dollar to Weaken, Boosting Exports: Video

Japan cooperates with US on international currency issues – NHK 101010

US House committee approves China currency bill – NHK 100925

US criticizes China, Japan over currency interventions – NHK 100917

Clyde Prestowitz discusses valuation of Chinese currency

Mar 24 10 Hearing on China’s Exchange Rate Policy, C. Fred Bergsten Opening Statement

Mar 24 10 Hearing on China’s Exchange Rate Policy, Clyde Prestowitz Opening Statement

The Truth About The Economy: Total Collapse

Ron Paul in September 14, 2007

The Federal Reserve System is a banking cartel that benefits the large banks at the expense of the American people.

Cartel economists and so-called experts cannot replace the market by attempting to fix the price of money or the dollar.

Abolish the Federal Reserve System.

Abolish fiat paper currency.

Establish a new United States currency backed by gold.

Milton Friedman on Monetary Policy – 1/3

Milton Friedman on Monetary Policy – 2/3

Milton Friedman on Monetary Policy – 3/3

This is necessary to stop the financing of massive Federal Government deficits by the Federal Reserve that is purchasing U. S. Treasury bills and notes with Federal Reserve Notes by printing money or the monetarization of government debt.

Money printing or quantitative easing decreases the purchasing power of the money supply–debasing of the currency– robbing the American people.

Will the Federal Reserve System and fiat paper money be abolished?

Not any time soon.

The result will first be a longer and deeper recession lasting well into 2013.

In 2013 the Federal Reserve System will be 100 years old.

The Federal Reserves System will celebrate by achieving by then the devaluation of the dollar by 99%.

In other words one dollar in 1913 will be worth 1 cent in 2013.

If this is monetary stability, one wonders what inflation really is.

Time to do away the Federal Reserve System for incompetence.

I do not expect the unemployment rate to fall below 8% for U-3 until 2013 at the earliest.

As unemployment slowly declines in 2011 and 2012, there will be at first a gradual increase in the general price level that will accelerate in 2013.

This will be due the inability of the Federal Reserve to reverse quickly enough its very aggressive expansive monetary policy.

In 2011 and 2012 import prices will rise as the Federal Reserve attempts to devalue the dollar compared with other national currencies in an attempt to expand exports by making them cheaper.

The price of a gallon gasoline in the United States will first rise above $3 in 2011 and $4 in 2012 mainly due to the devaluation of the U.S. dollar.

As Communist China gradually lets the value of its currency rise in value relative to the U.S. dollar, exports from China will rise in price. This means higher prices for goods imported into the U.S. from China.

The decline in the value or purchasing power of the dollar in 2011 and 2012 combined with unemployment rates exceeding 8% will mean further losses for the Democratic Party in 2012 including the Presidency.

The American people are rightfully mad as hell at the ruling class and political elites in Washington D.C.

Power of the Market – How to Cure Inflation 1

 

 

Power of the Market – How to Cure Inflation 2

 

Power of the Market – How to Cure Inflation 3

 

Ron Paul on the Federal Reserve and Government Deficit Spending

The Gold Standard in Theory and Myth by Joseph Salerno

“The gold standard has one tremendous virtue: the quantity of the money supply, under the gold standard, is independent of the policies of governments and political parties. This is its advantage. It is a form of protection against spendthrift governments.”

“Inflationism, however, is not an isolated phenomenon. It is only one piece in the total framework of politico-economic and socio-philosophical ideas of our time. Just as the sound money policy of gold standard advocates went hand in hand with liberalism, free trade, capitalism and peace, so is inflationism part and parcel of imperialism, militarism, protectionism, statism and socialism.”

~Ludwig von Mises

9. Consolidated Statement of Condition of All Federal Reserve Banks

Millions of dollars
Assets, liabilities, and capital Eliminations from
consolidation
Wednesday
Oct 6, 2010
Change since
Wednesday
Sep 29, 2010
Wednesday
Oct 7, 2009
Assets  
Gold certificate account   11,037 0 0
Special drawing rights certificate account   5,200 0 0
Coin   2,114 + 3 + 124
Securities, repurchase agreements, term auction
credit, and other loans
  2,101,199 + 7,113 + 216,329
Securities held outright 1   2,051,716 + 7,403 + 456,429
U.S. Treasury securities   819,072 + 7,403 + 49,887
Bills 2   18,423 0 0
Notes and bonds, nominal 2   752,832 + 7,390 + 52,364
Notes and bonds, inflation-indexed 2   42,318 0 – 2,270
Inflation compensation 3   5,499 + 13 – 207
Federal agency debt securities 2   154,105 0 + 20,294
Mortgage-backed securities 4   1,078,539 0 + 386,248
Repurchase agreements 5   0 0 0
Term auction credit   0 0 – 178,379
Other loans   49,483 – 290 – 61,721
Net portfolio holdings of Commercial Paper
Funding Facility LLC 6
  0 0 – 41,059
Net portfolio holdings of Maiden Lane LLC 7   28,510 + 40 + 2,206
Net portfolio holdings of Maiden Lane II LLC 8   15,674 – 201 + 1,213
Net portfolio holdings of Maiden Lane III LLC 9   22,782 – 258 + 2,616
Net portfolio holdings of TALF LLC 10   601 0 + 601
Preferred interests in AIA Aurora LLC and ALICO
Holdings LLC 11
  26,057 + 324 + 26,057
Items in process of collection (84) 463 + 98 + 310
Bank premises   2,222 – 7 + 1
Central bank liquidity swaps 12   61 0 – 49,770
Other assets 13   95,313 + 2,248 + 11,389
 
Total assets (84) 2,311,231 + 9,358 + 170,016

Note: Components may not sum to totals because of rounding. Footnotes appear at the end of the table. 9. Consolidated Statement of Condition of All Federal Reserve Banks (continued)

Millions of dollars
Assets, liabilities, and capital Eliminations from
consolidation
Wednesday
Oct 6, 2010
Change since
Wednesday
Sep 29, 2010
Wednesday
Oct 7, 2009
Liabilities
Federal Reserve notes, net of F.R. Bank holdings 918,609 + 4,849 + 42,489
Reverse repurchase agreements 14 64,440 – 2,930 + 1,540
Deposits (0) 1,253,413 + 6,593 + 113,645
Term deposits held by depository institutions 2,119 0 + 2,119
Other deposits held by depository institutions 1,000,014 + 15,875 + 33,477
U.S. Treasury, general account 49,530 – 8,299 + 18,525
U.S. Treasury, supplementary financing account 199,962 + 1 + 70,006
Foreign official 1,345 – 1,066 – 540
Other (0) 444 + 84 – 9,940
Deferred availability cash items (84) 2,598 + 410 – 182
Other liabilities and accrued dividends 15 15,029 + 91 + 6,468
Total liabilities (84) 2,254,089 + 9,014 + 163,961
Capital accounts
Capital paid in 26,687 + 1 + 1,798
Surplus 25,881 + 6 + 4,500
Other capital accounts 4,575 + 338 – 242
Total capital 57,142 + 344 + 6,055

Note: Components may not sum to totals because of rounding.

1. Includes securities lent to dealers under the overnight and term securities lending facilities; refer to table 1A.

2.Face value of the securities.

3. Compensation that adjusts for the effect of inflation on the original face value of inflation-indexed securities.

4. Guaranteed by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Ginnie Mae. Current face value of the securities, which is the remaining principal balance of the underlying mortgages.

5.Cash value of agreements, which are collateralized by U.S. Treasury and federal agency securities.

6. Includes the book value of the commercial paper, net of amortized costs and related fees, and other investments held by the Commercial Paper Funding Facility LLC.

7. Refer to table 4 and the note on consolidation accompanying table 10.

8. Refer to table 5 and the note on consolidation accompanying table 10.

9. Refer to table 6 and the note on consolidation accompanying table 10.

10. Refer to table 7 and the note on consolidation accompanying table 10.

11. Refer to table 8.

12. Dollar value of foreign currency held under these agreements valued at the exchange rate to be used when the foreign currency is returned to the foreign central bank. This exchange rate equals the market exchange rate used when the foreign currency was acquired from the foreign central bank.

13. Includes other assets denominated in foreign currencies, which are revalued daily at market exchange rates, accrued dividends on the Federal Reserve Bank of New York’s (FRBNY) preferred interests in AIA Aurora LLC and ALICO Holdings LLC, and the fair value adjustment to credit extended by the FRBNY to eligible borrowers through the Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility.

14. Cash value of agreements, which are collateralized by U.S. Treasury securities, federal agency debt securities, and mortgage-backed securities.

15. Includes the liabilities of Maiden Lane LLC, Maiden Lane II LLC, Maiden Lane III LLC, and TALF LLC to entities other than the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, including liabilities that have recourse only to the portfolio holdings of these LLCs. Refer to table 4 through table 7 and the note on consolidation accompanying table 10.

Minutes of the Federal Open Market Committee September 21, 2010″…At the conclusion of the discussion, the Committee voted to authorize and direct the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, until it was instructed otherwise, to execute transactions in the System Account in accordance with the following domestic policy directive:

“The Federal Open Market Committee seeks monetary and financial conditions that will foster price stability and promote sustainable growth in output. To further its long-run objectives, the Committee seeks conditions in reserve markets consistent with federal funds trading in a range from 0 to 1/4 percent. The Committee directs the Desk to maintain the total face value of domestic securities held in the System Open Market Account at approximately $2 trillion by reinvesting principal payments from agency debt and agency mortgage-backed securities in longer-term Treasury securities. The System Open Market Account Manager and the Secretary will keep the Committee informed of ongoing developments regarding the System’s balance sheet that could affect the attainment over time of the Committee’s objectives of maximum employment and price stability.”

The vote encompassed approval of the statement below to be released at 2:15 p.m.:

“Information received since the Federal Open Market Committee met in August indicates that the pace of recovery in output and employment has slowed in recent months. Household spending is increasing gradually, but remains constrained by high unemployment, modest income growth, lower housing wealth, and tight credit. Business spending on equipment and software is rising, though less rapidly than earlier in the year, while investment in nonresidential structures continues to be weak. Employers remain reluctant to add to payrolls. Housing starts are at a depressed level. Bank lending has continued to contract, but at a reduced rate in recent months. The Committee anticipates a gradual return to higher levels of resource utilization in a context of price stability, although the pace of economic recovery is likely to be modest in the near term.Measures of underlying inflation are currently at levels somewhat below those the Committee judges most consistent, over the longer run, with its mandate to promote maximum employment and price stability. With substantial resource slack continuing to restrain cost pressures and longer-term inflation expectations stable, inflation is likely to remain subdued for some time before rising to levels the Committee considers consistent with its mandate.The Committee will maintain the target range for the federal funds rate at 0 to 1/4 percent and continues to anticipate that economic conditions, including low rates of resource utilization, subdued inflation trends, and stable inflation expectations, are likely to warrant exceptionally low levels for the federal funds rate for an extended period. The Committee also will maintain its existing policy of reinvesting principal payments from its securities holdings.The Committee will continue to monitor the economic outlook and financial developments and is prepared to provide additional accommodation if needed to support the economic recovery and to return inflation, over time, to levels consistent with its mandate.”

Voting for this action: Ben Bernanke, William C. Dudley, James Bullard, Elizabeth Duke, Sandra Pianalto, Eric Rosengren, Daniel K. Tarullo, and Kevin Warsh.Voting against this action: Thomas M. Hoenig.Mr. Hoenig dissented, emphasizing that the economy was entering the second year of moderate recovery and that, while the zero interest rate policy and “extended period” language were appropriate during the crisis and its immediate aftermath, they were no longer appropriate with the recovery under way. Mr. Hoenig also emphasized that, in his view, the current high levels of unemployment were not caused by high interest rates but by an extended period of exceptionally low rates earlier in the decade that contributed to the housing bubble and subsequent collapse and recession. He believed that holding rates artificially low would invite the development of new imbalances and undermine long-run growth. He would prefer removing the “extended period” language and thereafter moving the federal funds rate upward, consistent with his views at past meetings that it approach 1 percent, before pausing to determine what further policy actions were needed. Also, given current economic and financial conditions, Mr. Hoenig did not believe that continuing to reinvest principal payments from SOMA securities holdings was required to support the Committee’s policy objectives.It was agreed that the next meeting of the Committee would be held on Tuesday-Wednesday, November 2-3, 2010. The meeting adjourned at 1:10 p.m. on September 21, 2010. …”

http://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/fomcminutes20100921.htm

Background Articles and Videos

Marc-Faber– FedsPrinting to Create Final Crisis 8-3-2010

Quantitative easing

Marc Faber Sees Fed Introducing `Massive’ Quantitative Easing

Ron Paul: If You Care About The Poor You Have To Look At Monetary Policy

The Gold Standard Before the Civil War | Murray N. Rothbard

Monetary Policy, Deflation, And Quantitative Easing

“…Aren’t the excess bank reserves inflationary?

Potentially yes, but currently no. Even though banks are earning a meager 25 basis points on their reserves, that is not sufficient incentive to keep large quantities of excess reserves uninvested or unloaned. As they were in the mid-1930s, massive excess reserves are the result of banker fear and uncertainty. The banking system has been saved, but it hasn’t been made whole yet. Bankers continue to worry about reserve levels and liquidity levels and capital levels. They are willing to lend, but only very conservatively to credit-worthy borrowers. Also, much of the slowdown in bank lending comes from low demand for loans by highly qualified borrowers.

The idea that the excess reserves held on banks’ balance sheets should be “mopped up” to prevent them being used in inflationary ways later is a very dangerous idea. They are there voluntarily because bankers feel they are needed. To remove them would cause further bank retrenchment, as it did in the 1930s when the Fed decided to “mop up” the excess reserves of that time.

As the economy and confidence improves, banks will begin using their excess reserves more aggressively. At that point, the Fed will have to be very careful not to stifle that desirable activity on the one hand or let it get out of hand and become inflationary on the other hand. Since they have lots of good, two-handed economists, I think they can pull it off. ..”

http://www.dailymarkets.com/economy/2010/07/30/monetary-policy-deflation-and-quantitative-easing/

The Founding of the Federal Reserve | Murray N. Rothbard

If you work to earn money you need to watch this

Quantitative Easing

“…The term quantitative easing (QE) describes a monetary policy used by central banks to increase the supply of money by increasing the excess reserves of the banking system. This policy is usually invoked when the normal methods to control the money supply have failed, i.e the bank interest rate, discount rate and/or interbank interest rate are either at, or close to, zero.

A central bank implements QE by first crediting its own account with money it creates ex nihilo (“out of nothing”).[1] It then purchases financial assets, including government bonds, agency debt, mortgage-backed securities and corporate bonds, from banks and other financial institutions in a process referred to as open market operations. The purchases, by way of account deposits, give banks the excess reserves required for them to create new money, and thus hopefully induce a stimulation of the economy, by the process of deposit multiplication from increased lending in the fractional reserve banking system.

Risks include the policy being more effective than intended, spurring hyperinflation, or the risk of not being effective enough, if banks opt simply to sit on the additional cash in order to increase their capital reserves in a climate of increasing defaults in their present loan portfolio.[1]

“Quantitative” refers to the fact that a specific quantity of money is being created; “easing” refers to reducing the pressure on banks.[2] However, another explanation is that the name comes from the Japanese-language expression for “stimulatory monetary policy”, which uses the term “easing”.[3] Quantitative easing is sometimes colloquially described as “printing money” although in reality the money is simply created by electronically adding a number to an account. Examples of economies where this policy has been used include Japan during the early 2000s, and the United States, the United Kingdom and the Eurozone during the global financial crisis of 2008–the present, since the programme is suitable for economies where the bank interest rate, discount rate and/or interbank interest rate are either at, or close to, zero.

Concept

Ordinarily, the central bank uses its control of interest rates, or sometimes reserve requirements, to indirectly influence the supply of money.[1] In some situations, such as very low inflation or deflation, setting a low interest rate is not enough to maintain the level of money supply desired by the central bank, and so quantitative easing is employed to further boost the amount of money in the financial system.[1] This is often considered a “last resort” to increase the money supply.[4][5] The first step is for the bank to create more money ex nihilo (“out of nothing”) by crediting its own account. It can then use these funds to buy investments like government bonds from financial firms such as banks, insurance companies and pension funds,[1] in a process known as “monetising the debt“.

For example, in introducing its QE programme, the Bank of England bought gilts from financial institutions, along with a smaller amount of relatively high-quality debt issued by private companies.[6] The banks, insurance companies and pension funds can then use the money they have received for lending or even to buy back more bonds from the bank. The central bank can also lend the new money to private banks or buy assets from banks in exchange for currency.[citation needed] These have the effect of depressing interest yields on government bonds and similar investments, making it cheaper for business to raise capital.[7] Another side effect is that investors will switch to other investments, such as shares, boosting their price and thus creating the illusion of increasing wealth in the economy.[6] QE can reduce interbank overnight interest rates, and thereby encourage banks to loan money to higher interest-paying and financially weaker bodies.

More specifically, the lending undertaken by commercial banks is subject to fractional-reserve banking: they are subject to a regulatory reserve requirement, which requires them to keep a percentage of deposits in “reserve”,[citation needed]: these can only be used to settle transactions between them and the central bank.[7] The remainder, called “excess reserves”, can (but does not have to be) be used as a basis for lending. When, under QE, a central bank buys from an institution, the institution’s bank account is credited directly and their bank gains reserves.[6] The increase in deposits from the quantitative easing process causes an excess in reserves and private banks can then, if they wish, create even more new money out of “thin air” by increasing debt (lending) through a process known as deposit multiplication and thus increase the country’s money supply. The reserve requirement limits the amount of new money. For example a 10% reserve requirement means that for every $10,000 created by quantitative easing the total new money created is potentially $100,000. The US Federal Reserve‘s now out-of-print booklet Modern Money Mechanics explains the process.

A state must be in control of its own currency and monetary policy if it is to unilaterally employ quantitative easing. Countries in the eurozone (for example) cannot unilaterally use this policy tool, but must rely on the European Central Bank to implement it.[citation needed] There may also be other policy considerations. For example, under Article 123 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union[7] and later the Maastricht Treaty, EU member states are not allowed to finance their public deficits (debts) by simply printing the money required to fill the hole, as happened, for example, in Weimar Germany and more recently in Zimbabwe.[1] Banks using QE, such as the Bank of England, have argued that they are increasing the supply of money not to fund government debt but to prevent deflation, and will choose the financial products they buy accordingly, for example, by buying government bonds not straight from the government, but in secondary markets.[1][7]

HistoryQuantitative easing was used unsuccessfully[8] by the Bank of Japan (BOJ) to fight domestic deflation in the early 2000s.[9] During the global financial crisis of 2008–the present, policies announced by the US Federal Reserve under Ben Bernanke to counter the effects of the crisis are a form of quantitative easing. Its balance sheet expanded dramatically by adding new assets and new liabilities without “sterilizing” these by corresponding subtractions. In the same period the United Kingdom used quantitative easing as an additional arm of its monetary policy in order to alleviate its financial crisis.[10][11][12]

The European Central Bank (ECB) has used 12-month long-term refinancing operations (a form of quantitative easing without referring to it as such) through a process of expanding the assets that banks can use as collateral that can be posted to the ECB in return for Euros. This process has led to bonds being “structured for the ECB”[13]. By comparison the other central banks were very restrictive in terms of the collateral they accept: the US Federal Reserve used to accept primarily treasuries (in the first half of 2009 it bought almost any relatively safe dollar-denominated securities); the Bank of England applied a large haircut.

In Japan’s case, the BOJ had been maintaining short-term interest rates at close to their minimum attainable zero values since 1999. With quantitative easing, it flooded commercial banks with excess liquidity to promote private lending, leaving them with large stocks of excess reserves, and therefore little risk of a liquidity shortage.[14] The BOJ accomplished this by buying more government bonds than would be required to set the interest rate to zero. It also bought asset-backed securities and equities, and extended the terms of its commercial paper purchasing operation.[15]

RisksQuantitative easing is seen as a risky strategy that could trigger higher inflation than desired or even hyperinflation if it is improperly used and too much money is created.

Quantitative easing runs the risk of going too far. An increase in money supply to a system has an inflationary effect by diluting the value of a unit of currency. People who have saved money will find it is devalued by inflation; this combined with the associated low interest rates will put people who rely on their savings in difficulty. If devaluation of a currency is seen externally to the country it can affect the international credit rating of the country which in turn can lower the likelihood of foreign investment. Like old-fashioned money printing, Zimbabwe suffered an extreme case of a process that has the same risks as quantitative easing, printing money, making its currency virtually worthless.[1]

…”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantitative_easing

Federal Open Market Committee

“…About the FOMCThe term “monetary policy” refers to the actions undertaken by a central bank, such as the Federal Reserve, to influence the availability and cost of money and credit to help promote national economic goals. The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 gave the Federal Reserve responsibility for setting monetary policy.The Federal Reserve controls the three tools of monetary policy–open market operations, the discount rate, and reserve requirements. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is responsible for the discount rate and reserve requirements, and the Federal Open Market Committee is responsible for open market operations. Using the three tools, the Federal Reserve influences the demand for, and supply of, balances that depository institutions hold at Federal Reserve Banks and in this way alters the federal funds rate. The federal funds rate is the interest rate at which depository institutions lend balances at the Federal Reserve to other depository institutions overnight.Changes in the federal funds rate trigger a chain of events that affect other short-term interest rates, foreign exchange rates, long-term interest rates, the amount of money and credit, and, ultimately, a range of economic variables, including employment, output, and prices of goods and services.

Structure of the FOMC

The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) consists of twelve members–the seven members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; and four of the remaining eleven Reserve Bank presidents, who serve one-year terms on a rotating basis. The rotating seats are filled from the following four groups of Banks, one Bank president from each group: Boston, Philadelphia, and Richmond; Cleveland and Chicago; Atlanta, St. Louis, and Dallas; and Minneapolis, Kansas City, and San Francisco. Nonvoting Reserve Bank presidents attend the meetings of the Committee, participate in the discussions, and contribute to the Committee’s assessment of the economy and policy options.The FOMC holds eight regularly scheduled meetings per year. At these meetings, the Committee reviews economic and financial conditions, determines the appropriate stance of monetary policy, and assesses the risks to its long-run goals of price stability and sustainable economic growth.For more detail on the FOMC and monetary policy, see section 2 of the brochure on the structure of the Federal Reserve System and chapter 2 of Purposes & Functions of the Federal Reserve System.

2010 Members of the FOMC

  • Members
    • Ben S. Bernanke, Board of Governors, Chairman
    • William C. Dudley, New York, Vice Chairman
    • James Bullard, St. Louis
    • Elizabeth A. Duke, Board of Governors
    • Thomas M. Hoenig, Kansas City
    • Sandra Pianalto, Cleveland
    • Sarah Bloom Raskin, Board of Governors
    • Eric S. Rosengren, Boston
    • Daniel K. Tarullo, Board of Governors
    • Kevin M. Warsh, Board of Governors
    • Janet L. Yellen, Board of Governors …”

http://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/fomc.htm

FEDERAL RESERVE statistical release
H.4.1
Factors Affecting Reserve Balances of Depository Institutions and
Condition Statement of Federal Reserve Banks

Why Chinese Currency Manipulation Is America’s Fault by: Ian Fletcher April 15, 2010

“…Unfortunately, the token appreciation that is probably now in store won’t help very much. For one thing, Beijing has played this game before. China first started diversifying its currency reserves away from the dollar (which weakens currency manipulation) in July 2005, and from then until July 2008 allowed the yuan to rise from 8.28 to the dollar to 6.83, where it has since been held nearly steady. But this appreciation, while showcased by China, was purely nominal; after adjusting for inflation, the change was far smaller: about two percent.

How does China manipulate its currency? Mainly by preventing its exporters from using the dollars they earn as they wish. Instead, they are required to swap them for domestic currency at China’s central bank, which then “sterilizes” them by spending them on U.S. Treasury securities (and increasingly other, higher-yielding, investments) rather than U.S. goods. As a result, the price of dollars is propped up — which means the price of yuan is pushed down — by a demand for dollars which doesn’t involve buying American exports.

The amounts involved are astronomical: as of 2008, China’s accumulated dollar-denominated holdings amounted to $1.7 trillion, an astonishing 40 percent of China’s GDP. The China Currency Coalition estimated in 2005 that the yuan was undervalued by 40 percent; past scholarly estimates have ranged from 10 to 75 percent.

Why is this America’s fault? Because China’s currency is manipulated relative to our own only because we permit it, as there is no law requiring us to sell China our bonds and other assets. We could, in fact, end this manipulation at will. All we would need to do is bar China’s purchases, or just tax them to death.

This would be neither an extreme nor an unprecedented move. It is roughly what the Swiss did in 1972, when economic troubles elsewhere in the world generated an excessive flow of money seeking refuge in Swiss franc-denominated assets. This drove up the value of the franc and threatened to make Swiss manufacturing internationally uncompetitive. To prevent this, the Swiss government imposed a number of measures to dampen foreign investment demand for francs, including a ban on the sale of franc-denominated bonds, securities, and real estate to foreigners. Problem solved. (It did not even damage Switzerland’s standing as an international financial center, a key worry at the time.) …”

“…So the real underlying problem is that America doesn’t generate enough savings on its own to meet its voracious appetite for borrowing. China’s savings rate, thanks to deliberate suppression by the Chinese government of its people’s opportunities to spend what they earn, is an astonishing 50 percent. Ours was negative four percent in the last Federal Reserve report on the subject. We are—Oh, how Mao would have loved this!—decadent. …”

http://seekingalpha.com/article/198825-why-chinese-currency-manipulation-is-americas-fault


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Synchronization And Transfers–Videos

Posted on October 8, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Law, Radio, Recordings, Sound, Sound Effects, Speech, Synchronization, Web | Tags: , , , , , , |

 

Midi Time Code & SMPTE Synchronization for Midi Composers

How to Synchronize Audio and Video

How to Make a Good Basic YouTube Video

Cheap Wireless Radio Mics From eBay – any good?

Radio Mics & Alternatives for Low Budget Filmmaking?

Main Points To Remember

1. Synchronization allows the locking of two or more devices that have microprocessor intelligence so that they operate at precisely the same rate.

2. Accurate synchronization requires a system to code the recording media as well as a synchronizer to read the codes, compare them, and adjust the positions and speeds of machine transports so that they run at exactly the same rate.

3. There are three basic time codes: longitudinal time code and vertical interval time code, both of which are forms of  SMPTE time code; MIDI time codes; and the IEC standard.

4. SMPTE time code is a high-frequency electronic digital signal consisting of a stream of pulses produced by a time code generator. Its identifying code numbers are broken down into hours, minutes, seconds, and frames.

5. SMPTE longitudinal time code (LTC) is a digital signal converted to audio frequencies so it can be recorded on an audio track.

6. Vertical interval time code (VITC) carries the same information as SMPTE code, but it is used with video-tape and encodes the information vertically within the video signal, outside the visible picture area.

7. MIDI time code (MTC) translates SMPTE time code into MIDI messages.

8. The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) standard is the time code system used in digital audio-cassette recorders to ensure compatibility among all R-DAT equipment.

9. Because all time code readouts are in the same form, it is easy to confuse them if any numbers are duplicated on the same tape or on multiple tapes in a production. Two ways to avoid this confusion are to use the zero-start or the time-of-day logging method.

10. In recording SMPTE time code, be careful to record it at the recommended level. It the signal is recorded at too low a level, synchronization is adversely affected. If it is recorded  at too high a level, the time code signal will distort.

11. Every digital audio system has a signal, known as a word clock, generated inside the device that controls sampling frequency, or sampling rate. With digital audio, sampling rate is the determining syn factor.

12. A degradation in word-clock signals among the digital devices being interfaced can create jitter–a variation in time from sample to sample that causes changes in the shape of the audio waveform.

13. Five frame rate standards are used within SMPTE time code: 23.976, 24, 25, 29.97, and 30 frames per second (fps).

14. Frame rates for television are in either drop frame or non-drop frame format. Drop frame time code is time-accurate because it makes up for the error that results from the difference between the 29.97-fps and the 30-fps rate of video. Non-drop frame is the original video time code calculated at 30 fps. The two modes are not interchangeable.

15. In double-system recording, sound and picture are recorded separately and in syn; the camera records the picture, and an audio recorder handles the sound.

16. In single-system recording, both sound and picture are recorded on the same medium.

17. Two methods used to synchronize the film camera and the audio recorder in double-system recording are crystal synchronization and time code synchronization.

18. In double-system recording, a clapslate is used to make a visible and an audible syn mark on the film and audio recording, respectively. This helps identify and synchronize scenes during their transfer from the audio recoding to magnetic film, or more common, hard disk, and in editing.

19. Time code permits the accurate interlocking of two or more recorders, but a synchronizer is necessary to ensure that their transports run together simultaneously.

20. Copying sound (or picture) from one audio film or video device to another is usually called a transfer. Dub is another often-used term to describe this process.

21. Common audio transfers are analog to analog, analog to digital, and digital to digital.

22. In transferring audio, the sound can be altered for special effects.

23. The process of transferring a double-system film recording for postproduction to align the audio and the film is called resolving.

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Sound Design–Videos

Posted on October 8, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Communications, Digital Communication, Movies, Music, Radio, Recordings, Sound Effects, Speech | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

WALL-E Special Features Animation Sound Design: Building Worlds From The Sound Up (Part 1)

WALL-E Special Features Animation Sound Design: Building Worlds From The Sound Up (Part 2)

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 1 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 2 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 3 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 4 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 5 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 6 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 7 of 7

A Tour of LA’s Village Recording Studio

Deep Recording Studios – The Tour

Deep Studios Industry Training – Sound Engineering

Main Points To Remember

1. Sound design is the process of creating the overall sonic character of a production and is ongoing throughout the production process.

2. The sound designer is responsible for creative control of the audio–to put a coherent sonic stamp on a production–although all members of the audio team make creative contributions to the sound.

3. There are three domains to work with in creating a sound design: speech, sound effects, and music. Paradoxically, silence and the ability of sound to evoke a picture in the mind’s eye may be considered two other domains.

4. All sound is made up of the same basic components: pitch, loudness, timbre, tempo, rhythm, attack, duration, and decay.

5. Sound also has a visual component in that it can create pictures in the “theater of the mind.”

6. Sound has several functions in relation to picture; Sound can parallel picture, sound can define picture, picture can define sound and picture can define effect, and sound can counterpoint picture.

7. There  is no set procedure for designing sound. At the outset the most important thing to do is study the script and analyze the auditory requirements line by line to determine the overall sonic approach to various scenes or for an entire work, or both.

8. Determining a sound design involves consideration of how the audience is to think or feel about a particular story, scene, character, or action; from what point of view; and whether that is to be carried out mainly in the sound effects or music or both.

9. Determining a sound design also requires the awareness that doing so is often tantamount to defining a production’s conceptual and emotional intent.

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Recording–Videos

Posted on October 7, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Communications, Digital Communication, Issues, Mass Media, Movies, Politics, Radio, Recordings, Web | Tags: , , , |

Digital Recording 1

Digital Recording 1-2

Digital Recording 2 (Things To Know)

Digital Recording 2-2 (Things To Know)

Digital Recording 2-3

Digital Recording 3 (Mastering Room)

Digital Recording 4_1 (Connection)

Digital Recording 4_2 (Connection)

Digital Recording 4_3 Connection

 

1. In audiotape recording, electrical signals are transduced into magnetic signals during the recording phase. during playback the magnetic signals are transduced back into electrical signals.

2. In analog recording, signals are oriented on the tape in patterns analogous to the waveform of the original signal. The signal is continuous–it is always “on”.

3. Most recording tape is composed of a thin, plastic ribbon of polyester; microscopic needle like magnetic particles; a binder of synthetic varnish so the particles adhere to the polyester; and a back coating to reduce slippage.

4. Open-reel analog audiotape comes in two thicknesses: about 1 mil for digital tape and 1 1/2 mil for analog tape. The 1 1/2  mil tape is preferred for analog recording because it reduces the chance of print-through. Digital audio-tape does not have to be as thick as analog because the digital system has to deal only with  1s(the presence of a pulse) and 0s(the absence of a pulse). Therefore, thickness in not a factor in the tape’s signal-to-noise ratio and its ability to reproduce dynamic range.

5. Open-reel audiotape comes in four widths1/4, 1/5, 1, and 2 inch. The width of analog cassette tape is 3/20 inch. Typically, the 1/2-inch width is used with digital multi-track 5-DAT machines and the 2-inch tape is used with analog multitrack recorders.

6. Tape should be handled carefully. The tape surface can be sullied by fingerprints, smoke, and dust, and the tape reels can be damaged by being stacked one upon the other. Tape should be stored tails out in a controlled environment o 68 degrees F, plus or minus 5 degrees, and 40 percent humidity, plus or minus 5 percent.

7. The three essential sections of a tape recorder are the tape transport system, the magnetic heads, and the record and playback electronics.

8. A number of controls operate the transport: the power switch, variable-speed control, play, record, stop, fast-forward, rewind, and the tape edit control.

9. An important function of the transport system is to maintain the tape movement at a precise, constant speed. A change in the transport speed could result in audible changes in a recording’s frequency. Slow changes are called wow; faster changes are called flutter.

10. Most professional analog tape recorders run at one or more speeds: 7 1/2, 15, and 30 inches per second (ips); 15 and 30 ips are standard with analog multitrack recorders. Generally, the faster the speed, the better the sound quality.

11. Professional analog tape recorders have at least three heads: erase, record, and playback. Most modern recorders also have a head for time code.

12. because the magnetic particles on tape respond to magnetization nonlineraly (they cannot make sense of the information carried by the input signal), the record head has a high-frequency bias current that linearized the magnetic information so it can be encoded on the tape.

13. A 2-inch headstack houses 16 or 24 separate heads and can record or play back 16 or 24  tape tracks. There are a few analog multitrack recorders with 32 channels and, hence, 32 separate heads on the 2-inch headstack.

14. The position of the heads is critical, and any change in their physical alignment–zenith, height, tangent, wrap, or azimuth–adversely affects sound quality.

15. Heads must also be electronically aligned regularly. They should be demagnetized and cleaned before each session and during long sessions.

16. Multitrack audiotape recorder have a variety of features, including Sel Sync, which temporarily changes selected tracks on the record head into the playback mode. This permits various elements in a recording to be taped synchronously at different times.

17. Analog videotape recorders encode analog video as well as audio that may be analog, frequency modulated, or digital.

18. There are three types of film: silent, sound, and magnetic.

19. Silent film carries no sound intormation. Sound film carries both picture and optical sound. Magnetic film contains all sound and no picture. Magnetic film comes in either full coat or stripe coat.

20. Sound quality in 16 mm magnetic film is mediocre. In 35 mm it is a little better, but with such enhancements as Dolby processing digital audio, and surround sound, 25 mm audio quality is excellent.

21. Digital audio uses a numerical representation of the sound signal’s actual frequency and amplitude. In analog, frequency is the time component, and amplitude is the level component. In digital, sampling is the time component, and quatization is the level component.

22. Sampling takes periodic samples (voltages) of the original analog signal at ficed intervals and converts them into digirtal data. The rate at which the fixed intervals sample the original signal each second is called the sampling frequency.

23. As samples of the waveform are taken, these voltages are converted into discrete and assigned value. This process is known as Quantization.

24. The basic steps in the digital recording process are: antialiasing, sample and hold, analog-to-digital conversion, signal coding, and data storage.

25. The basic steps in digital reproduction are: demodulation, error correcting, digital-to-analog conversion, sample and hold, and low-pass filtering.

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Internet Audio Production

Posted on October 4, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Communications, Digital Communication, Law, Mass Media, Music, Radio, Recordings, Web | Tags: , |

Digital Video File Formats Part 1

Video File Formats Part 2

Key Main Points To Remember

 

1. Achieving digital-quality sound transmission over the Internet depends on several factors, not the least of which are computer and loudspeakers capable of delivering the high-quality audio.

2. Among the factors relevant to high-quality audio are the connection speed and reducing file size.

3. Reducing file size can be done by file manipulation or data compression.

4. File manipulation includes reducing sampling rate, word length, number of channels, and playing time and, with music, using instrumental instead of vocal-based tracks.

5. Playing time can be reduced by editing through compression of the dynamic range, noise reduction, and equalization.

6. Compression can be either lossless, preserving the original information, or lossy, with high-compression ratios where some data is filtered out.

7.  Protocols used for data compression include adaptive differential pulse code modulation, a-law and u-law, ReadAudio, MPEG-2 layer 3 technology, MPEG-2 AAC, and MPEG-4 AAC.

8.  File formats facilitate the saving of digital audio files.

9. The difference between streaming and nonstreaming is that streaming allows audio data to be sent across a computer network with no interruptions at the receiving end, although, in practice, interruptions do occur with slower connections.

10. Downloading nonstreaming data is usually slow and therefore limited to small files.

11. The principle behind streaming technologies is buffering.

12. With streaming technology the transmission process passes through the encoder, the server, the Internet, and the player.

13. Using secure file servers, it is possible to do  collaborative audio production online by uploading and downloading such audio materials as music, voice-overs, and sound effects. Virtual studios that facilitate real-time recording are not yer technologically feasible.

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Consoles and Control Surfaces–Videos

Posted on October 2, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Communications, Digital Communication, Mass Media, Music, Radio, Recordings, Television, Web | Tags: , , , |

How a Radio Station Works : Radio Station Equipment: On-Air Mixing Board

How a Radio Station Works : Functions of Radio Station On-Air Mixing Board

The Big Studio Control Room

Big Studio Mixing Console

The Dave Ramsey Show Control Room

 

Main Points to Remember

1. Mixers and consoles take input signals and amplify, balance, process, combine, and route them to broadcast or recording. 

2. The differences between a mixer and a console are that a mixer is small, highly portable, and performs limited processing functions, whereas a console is larger and performs numerous processing function. In many consoles these functions are computer-assisted. 

3. Consoles have at least three basic control sections: input, output, and monitor. Many consoles have an additional master control section. 

4. The input section takes incoming signals and routes them to the output section

5. The output section routes signals to broadcast or recording

6. The master section contains, among other things, the master output bus (or buses) that routes the final mix to the master recorder

7. The monitor section enables signals to be heard. 

8. On-air broadcast consoles, particularly for radio, do not have to be as elaborate as production consoles because most of the audio they handle has been produced already. 

9. Split-section consoles have separate input,output, master, and monitor sections. In-line consoles bring the input and output functions vertically in line, enabling any signal processing to be routed to the monitor or master system. 

10. The main sections of an in-line console are: input/output, master, monitor, and communications

11. The input/output section includes: input/output channel strip; microphone preamplifier input module; microphone preamplifier; phantom power; trim; overload, or peak, indicator; pad; polarity (phase) reversal; channel assignment and routing; direct switch; pan pot; equalizer and filter; dynamics section; channel/monitor control; cue and effects (D/X or EFX) sends; solo and prefader listen (PFL); mute (channel on/off); channel and monitor faders; and meters. 

12. The volume unit (VU) meter is a voltage meter that measures the amount of electic energy flowing through the console. The meter has two scales: percentage of modulation and volume units. Percentage of modulation is the percentage of an applied signal in relation to the maximum signal a sound system can handle. 

13. The Vu meter responds to average sound intensity, unlike the peak program peter (pm), which is designed to indicate transient peaks

14. The master section includes: master buses, master fade, master effects sends and returns, level and mute controls, meters, and other functions. 

15. The communication section includes: talkback, slate/talkback, an oscillator, and a patch bay. 

16. Most analog production consoles include a patch bay, a central routing terminal to which are wired the inputs and outputs of the console or the equipment in a studio, or both. The patch bay makes multiple signal paths possible. Patch cords plugged into jacks connect the routing circuits.

17. The signal paths that are used most often are wired together at the terminals of the patch bay. This normals these routes and makes it unnecessary to use patch cords to connect them. It is possible to break normal and reate toher signal paths by patching.

18. Plugs at the end of patch cords are either unbalanced, comprising a tip and a sleeve, or balanced, comprising a tip, ring, and sleeve.

19. Console automation makes it possible to automate fade functions, decoding positional information as adjustments in level are made. The data is stored in and retrieved from computer memory.

20. There are four types of console automation systems in use: voltage-controlled automationmoving-fader automation, software-controlled automation, and MIDI-based automation.

21. Console automation systems have at least the three basic operating modes: write, read, and update.

22. Digital consoles use the assignable concept in three configurations: in an analog console that is digitally controlled, in an all-digital controlled, in an all-digital console, and in a virtual console which is not a console per se, but an integrated system that combines a hard-disk computer and specialized software to record and process audio directly to disk.

23. With digital consoles, instead of individual controls for channel-to-rack routing on each channel strip, these function have been centralized into single sets so they can be assigned to any channel. Once assigned, the commands are stored in the console;s computer, so different functions can be assigned to other channels. There is no physical connection between the controls on the console surface and the audio circuit elements.

24. A digital control surface provides external control of a virtual audio environment. There are two main types of control surface: general-purpose controllers that can work with a wide range of gear and dedicated controllers that work with specific software.

Related Posts On Pronk Palisades

Microphones–Videos

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News Journal: Number 21, September 28, 2010: Breaking News–Shooting At University of Texas Campus–Updated–Videos

Posted on September 28, 2010. Filed under: Communications, Law, Mass Media, Newspapers, Print Media, Radio, Recordings, Television, Web | Tags: , , , , |

Rifle Fire At the University of Texas at Austin Ends In Suicide of Student Shooter–No Other Fatalities Or Injuries

 

Colton J. Tooley, 19-year-old sophomore math major at the University of Texas, lived on Western Drive about ten miles south of the campus. 

On Tuesday, September 28, Tooley dressed in a dark suit and wearing a ski mask went to the University of Texas campus. 

There Tooley fired about 8 to 10 shoots in short bursts from an AK-47 rifle at about 8:10 a.m. outside of the Perry-Castaneda Library of the University of Texas in Austin, Texas . 

Tooley then entered the Perry-Castaneda Library, proceeded via stairwell up to the sixth floor of the library where he fired several shots and then killed himself about 8:50 a.m. 

Tooley graduated seventh in his 2009 class from Crockett High School. He was an excellent student in all subjects according to his high school teachers. He was considered a respectful and brilliant student. 

Campus and city police responded to the reports of gun fire about 8:15 a.m. 

Alarms and sirens were sounded at 8:25 a.m. and faculty, staff and students alerted by text messages and e-mail about the situation and to stay where they were located. 

The University of Texas was locked down about 8:30 a.m., all classes and functions cancelled for the day, and the campus closed by University President Bill Powers. 

Due to conflicting descriptions of the shooter, the police at first thought they were dealing with two shooters. 

A search of buildings was started to find the possible second shooter. 

No second shooter was found. 

Campus police Chief Robert Dahlstrom said “We now believe there is no second suspect involved.” 

Austin Police Chief Art Acevedo said the rife used was an AK-47 and shots were fired outside the library in the street which is considered a second crime scene. 

The campus-wide lock down was lifted just before noon, the campus reopened and classes will resume Wednesday. 

The student shooter, Colton J. Tooley, who committed suicide, was the only fatality. 

The rifle fire at the University of Texas brings back bad memories of the August 1, 1966 shootings by Charles Whitman from the observation deck of the administration building clock tower where he killed 16 and wounded 31 before being killed himself by the police. 

Gunman Opens Fire at UT in Austin; No One Hurt

 

Timeline of UT shooting, 09-28-10

 

Police: UT Campus Remains on Lockdown

 

Official: 1 Dead in Shooting at Univ. of Texas

 

CNN: University of Texas shooting: View from dorm room

 

Shooting at University of Texas at Austin

 

CNN: Student reacts to UT at Austin shooting 

 

News Update: Gunman opens fire on University of Texas campus

 

UT 9-28-10

 

Breaking News University of Texas Campus Shooting

 

 

 

 

http://www.utexas.edu/events/gtt/map.html 

What We Know About the Texas Campus Shooter

“…(Sept. 28) — Hours after the University of Texas was thrown into chaos and tragedy when a gunman attacked its Austin campus this morning — firing indiscriminately into the air before taking only his own life — the suspect has finally been identified as Colton J. Tooley, according to UT spokesman Don Hale. …” 

“…From other sources: 

  • It looks like he lived with his mother, Idalia Tooley (who names Colton as her only child on her Facebook page), and who ran a day care center out of the house, according to Austin Day Cares, a local database, which lists both her name and the address of the home. Surge Desk has reached out to the family but has not yet received a response.
  • He graduated from Crockett High School in 2009, My Fox New York reports. The website also carries his picture and the following statement from Craig Shapiro, principal of Crockett High:
“All of us in the Crockett High School community are shocked and saddened by today’s tragedy at the University of Texas. Our hearts go out to the family and friends of Colton Tooley. Colton, a 2009 Crockett graduate, was an excellent student, who excelled in every subject, and was ranked 7th in his class. His teachers recall him with words such as brilliant, meticulous, and respectful. Crockett High School will have additional counselors on campus, beginning Wednesday, to assist students and staff who request their services.” …”

http://www.aolnews.com/surge-desk/article/colton-tooley-what-we-know-about-the-suspected-ut-shooter/19652387 

Police on scene of shooting on UT campus

“…A gunman who fired several shots on the University of Texas campus in the Perry-Castaneda Library is dead of an apparent self-inflicted gunshot wound, and police are looking for a possible second suspect, officials say. 

Austin Police Chief Art Acevedo confirmed that the shooter is dead, but UT continues to be locked down, and people are urged to stay out of the area. 

Officials say it appears there are no other injuries. UT spokeswoman Rhonda Weldon said witnesses had reported that the man was armed with an automatic weapon. 

“The shooter is dead on the sixth floor of Perry-Castaneda Library, said Don Hale, a UT spokesman. “No identification. Apparently took his own life.” 

“We don’t have any report of anybody getting shot at this point,” Hale said. Officials at University Medical Center Brackenridge have said they have not received any patients. 

“It’s not clear yet” if there is a second suspect, Hale said shortly after 9 a.m., adding that the university’s advice to stay indoors and keep doors locked remains in force. …” 

http://www.statesman.com/blogs/content/shared-gen/blogs/austin/blotter/entries/2010/09/28/police_on_scene_of_shooting_on.html 

UT classes called off after shooting at library

By PEGGY FIKAC and R.G. RATCLIFFE

“…AUSTIN — University of Texas President Bill Powers cancelled classes for today and the campus was temporarily locked down after police said a man went into the Perry-Castañeda Library and shot and killed himself.Because of conflicting descriptions of the man and what weapon he was carrying, the campus was shut down as police searched for a possible second suspect. Authorities lifted the lockdown after noon.Police said they had identified an AK-47 and that they believed the man who died was dressed in black and wearing a ski mask. No details were given about the man’s identity or background.

“The armed suspect is dead. No other injuries have been reported,” Powers said in an email to students.  

“I want you to know that the campus remains locked down. All students, faculty, staff and visitors should stay indoors and continue to follow instructions (from loudspeakers, email, text messages and uniformed police officers). You will be notified when the situation becomes stable.” 

Austin Police Chief Art Acevedo said police were investigating two crime scenes — the one where he said a gunman killed himself and an area “where some other rounds were fired outdoors.” 

Buildings also were being searched “to eliminate any possibility of any explosive ordinances that may have been left behind by one or more suspects,” Acevedo said. 

He added, “Although there are reports of a second suspect, what we are doing right now is being methodical to eliminate a second suspect.” 

University of Texas Chief of Police Robert Dahlstrom said there was no motive known at this time. Asked whether the man with the gun was dressed all in black and wearing a ski mask, Dahlstrom said, “I have not seen him. That is what I am aware of.” 

Dahlstrom said officials hoped to open the north end of campus shortly but other areas would remained closed to allow searches to be conducted. The report of the armed man came in around 8 a.m., he said. …” 

http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/chronicle/7221548.html 

Background Articles and Videos

Amazing “Coincidence”: UT Shooting Cancels Pro-Gun Speech – Alex Jones Tv 1/2

Amazing “Coincidence”: UT Shooting Cancels Pro-Gun Speech – Alex Jones Tv 2/2

World — “What Starts Here Changes the World” — UT Austin

History Of AK-47

The Truth About AK-47 Firepower

The Truth about “Assault Weapons”

AK 47 vs M16

Tales of the Gun – The AK47 Assault Rifle 1/5

 

Tales of the Gun – The AK47 Assault Rifle 2/5

 

Tales of the Gun – The AK47 Assault Rifle 3/5

 

Tales of the Gun – The AK47 Assault Rifle 4/5

 

Tales of the Gun – The AK47 Assault Rifle 5/5

 

AK-47

“…The AK-47 is a selective-fire, gas-operated 7.62x39mm assault rifle, first developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. The designation AK-47 stands for Kalashnikov Automatic Rifle, 1947 Model (Russian: Автомат Калашникова 47, tr. Avtomat Kalashnikova 47). It is officially known as Avtomat Kalashnikova (or simply ‘AK’). Also it is known as Kalashnikov or Russian jargon Kalash.Design work on the AK began in the last year of World War II (1944). After the war 1946, the AK-46 was presented for official military trials; and, in 1947, the fixed-stock version was introduced into service with select units of the Soviet Army. An early development of the design was the AKS-47 (S—Skladnoy or “folding”), which was equipped with an underfolding metal shoulder stock. In 1949, the AK-47 was officially accepted by the Soviet Armed Forces and used by the majority of the member states of the Warsaw Pact. 

Firing the 7.62x39mm cartridge, the AK-47 produces significant wounding (including hydrostatic shock) when the projectile tumbles and fragments in tissue;[5] but it produces relatively minor wounds when the projectile exits before beginning to yaw.[6][7] 

The original AK-47 was one of the first true assault rifles.[8][9] Even after seven decades—because of its durability, low production cost, and ease of use—the model and its variants remain the most widely used and popular assault rifles in the world. It has been manufactured in many countries and has seen service with regular armed forces as well as irregular, revolutionary and terrorist organizations, worldwide. The AK-47 was the basis for developing many other types of individual and crew-served firearms. More AK-type rifles have been produced than all other assault rifles combined.[2] …” 

“…The main advantages of the Kalashnikov rifle are its simple design, fairly compact size and adaptation to mass production. It is inexpensive to manufacture, and easy to clean and maintain; its ruggedness and reliability are legendary.[24][25] The AK-47 was initially designed for ease of operation and repair by glove-wearing Soviet soldiers in Arctic conditions. The large gas piston, generous clearances between moving parts, and tapered cartridge case design allow the gun to endure large amounts of foreign matter and fouling without failing to cycle. This reliability comes at the cost of accuracy, as the looser tolerances do not allow for precision and consistency. Reflecting Soviet infantry doctrine of its time, the rifle is meant to be part of massed infantry fire, not long range engagements. The average service life of an AK-47 is 20 to 40 years depending on the conditions to which it has been exposed.[9] 

The notched rear tangent iron sight is adjustable, and is calibrated in hundreds of meters. The front sight is a post adjustable for elevation in the field. Windage adjustment is done by the armory before issue. The battle setting places the round within a few centimeters above or below the point of aim out to about 250 meters (275 yd). This “point-blank range” setting allows the shooter to fire the gun at any close target without adjusting the sights. Longer settings are intended for area suppression. These settings mirror the Mosin-Nagant and SKS rifles which the AK-47 replaced. This eased transition and simplified training. 

The prototype of the AK-47, the AK-46, had a separate fire selector and safety.[26] These were later combined in the production version to simplify the design. The fire selector acts as a dust cover for the charging handle raceway when placed on safe. This prevents intrusion of dust and other debris into the internal parts. The dust cover on the M16 rifle, in contrast, is not tied to the safety, and has to be manually closed. 

The bore and chamber, as well as the gas piston and the interior of the gas cylinder, are generally chromium-plated. This plating dramatically increases the life of these parts by resisting corrosion and wear. This is particularly important, as most military-production ammunition (and virtually all ammunition produced by the Soviet Union and other Communist nations) during the 20th century contained potassium chlorate in the primers. On firing, this was converted to corrosive and hygroscopic potassium chloride which mandated frequent and thorough cleaning in order to prevent damage. Chrome plating of critical parts is now common on many modern military weapons. 

The construction of the AK magazine is very robust with reinforced feed lips that contribute to the reliable functioning for which the design is noted. Most Yugoslavian and some East German AK magazines were made with cartridge followers that hold the bolt open when empty; however, most AK magazine followers allow the bolt to close when the magazine is empty. 

Operating cycle

The gas-operated mechanism of an AK-47 (Chinese version) 

To fire, the operator inserts a loaded magazine, moves the selector lever to the lowest position, pulls back and releases the charging handle, aims, and then pulls the trigger. In this setting, the firearm fires only once (semi-automatic), requiring the trigger to be released and depressed again for the next shot. With the selector in the middle position (full-automatic), the rifle continues to fire, automatically cycling fresh rounds into the chamber, until the magazine is exhausted or pressure is released from the trigger. As each bullet travels through the barrel, a portion of the gases expanding behind it is diverted into the gas tube above the barrel, where it impacts the gas piston. The piston, in turn, is driven backward, pushing the bolt carrier, which causes the bolt to move backwards, ejecting the spent round, and chambering a new round when the recoil spring pushes it back.[27] ...” 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AK-47 

Charles Whitman 

“…Charles Joseph Whitman (June 24, 1941 – August 1, 1966) was a student at the University of Texas at Austin and an ex-Marine who killed 14 people and wounded 32 others during a shooting rampage on and around the university’s campus on August 1, 1966. 

Three of his victims were killed inside the University’s tower and ten killed from the 29th floor observation deck [1][2] of the University’s 307 foot administrative building; one died a week after the shooting from her wounds. The tower massacre happened shortly after Whitman murdered his wife and mother at their homes. He was shot and killed by Austin Police Officer Houston McCoy,[3][4][5] assisted by Austin Police Officer Ramiro Martinez. 

Charles Whitman grew up in an upper-middle class family headed by a father who owned a successful plumbing contract business in Lake Worth, Florida. Whitman excelled at academics and was well liked by his peers and neighbors. There were underlying dysfunctional issues within the family that escalated in 1966, when his mother left his father and moved to Texas. The elder Whitman was an authoritarian who provided for his family, but demanded near perfection from all of them. He was also known to become physically and emotionally abusive. 

Whitman’s frustrations with his dysfunctional family were complicated by abuse of amphetamines and health issues including headaches that he reported in one of his final notes as “tremendous.”[6] A glioblastoma, which is a highly cancerous brain tumor, was discovered during autopsy that experts on the “Connally Commission” concluded may have played a role in his actions. He was also affected by a court martial as a United States Marine, failings as a student at the University of Texas, ambitious personal expectations and psychotic features he expressed in his typewritten note left at 906 Jewell Street, Austin, Texas, dated both July 31, 1966 and later by hand “3 A.M., both dead August 1, 1966”. 

Several months prior to the tragedy, he was summoned to Lake Worth, Florida to pick up his mother who was filing for divorce from his father. The stress caused by the break-up of the family became a dominant discussion between Whitman and a psychiatrist at the University of Texas Health Center on March 29, 1966.

  • Margaret Whitman, killed in her apartment
  • Kathy Whitman, killed while she slept
  • Edna Townsley, tower observation deck receptionist
  • Marguerite Lamport, killed by shotgun on tower stairs leading to the observation room inside the deck
  • Mark Gabour, killed by shotgun on tower stairs leading to the observation room inside the deck
  • Thomas Eckman, shoulder wound, kneeling over Claire Wilson, died on the mall
  • Robert Boyer, back wound, visiting physics professor
  • Thomas Ashton, chest wound, Peace Corps trainee
  • Thomas Karr, spine wound
  • Billy Speed, police officer, hit in the shoulder and traveled into the chest
  • Harry Walchuk, doctoral student and father of six
  • Paul Sonntag, shot through the mouth, age 18, hiding behind construction barriers
  • Claudia Rutt, age 18, killed helping fiancé Sonntag
  • Roy Schmidt, electrician shot outside his truck near the Littlefield Fountain
  • Karen Griffith, chest wound, age 17, died after a week in the hospital
  • Unborn Child, fatally injured when Claire Wilson was shot in her upper rear hip, exiting the abdomen

Wounded on August 1, 1966

  • Allen, John Scott
  • Bedford, Billy
  • Ehlke, Roland
  • Evgenides, Ellen
  • Esparza, Avelino
  • Foster, F. L.
  • Frede, Robert
  • Gabour, Mary Frances
  • Gabour, Michael
  • Garcia, Irma
  • Harvey, Nancy
  • Gunby, David[26]
  • Heard, Robert
  • Hernandez Jr., Aleck
  • Hohmann, Morris
  • Huffman, Devereau
  • Kelley, Homar J.
  • Khashab, Abdul
  • Littlefield, Brenda Gail
  • Littlefield, Adrian
  • Martinez, Dello
  • Martinez, Marina …”
  • Mattson, David
  • Ortega, Delores
  • Paulos, Janet
  • Phillips, Lana
  • Rovela, Oscar
  • Snowden, Billy
  • Stewart, C. A.
  • Wilson, Claire
  • Wilson, Sandra
  • Wheeler, Carla Sue

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Whitman 

Charles Whitman – Part 1 of 5

 

Charles Whitman – Part 2 of 5

 

Charles Whitman – Part 3 of 5

 

Charles Whitman – Part 4 of 5

 

Charles Whitman – Part 5 of 5

 

Son of a librarian 

  

Returning Books to PCL 

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News Journal: Number 20, September 24, 2010: Eddie Fisher Dies At 82–Videos

Posted on September 24, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Books, Books, Magazines, Mass Media, Movies, Music, Newspapers, Print Media, Radio, Recordings, Society, Television, Web | Tags: , , , |

By the time I was thirty-three years old I`d been married to America`s sweetheart and America`s femme fatale and both marriages had ended in scandal; I`d been one of the most popular singers in America and had given up my career for love; I had fathered two children and adopted two children and rarely saw any of them; I was addicted to methamphetamines and I couldn`t sleep at night without a huge dose of Librium. And from all this I had learned one very important lesson: There were no rules for me. I could get away with anything so long as that sound came out of my throat.

Pop Singer Eddie Fisher Dies at Age 82

50s pop singer Eddie Fisher dies at age 82

“…Pop singer Eddie Fisher, whose clear voice brought him a devoted following of teenage girls in the early 1950s before marriage scandals overshadowed his fame, has died at age 82.
He passed away Wednesday night at his home in Berkeley of complications from hip surgery, his daughter, Tricia Leigh Fisher of Los Angeles, told The Associated Press.

“Late last evening the world lost a true America icon,” Fisher’s family said in a statement released by publicist British Reece. “One of the greatest voices of the century passed away. He was an extraordinary talent and a true mensch.”

The death was first reported by Hollywood website deadline.com.

In the early 50s, Fisher sold millions of records with 32 hit songs including “Thinking of You,” “Any Time,” “Oh, My Pa-pa,” “I’m Yours,” “Wish You Were Here,” “Lady of Spain” and “Count Your Blessings.”

His fame was enhanced by his 1955 marriage to movie darling Debbie Reynolds — they were touted as “America’s favorite couple” — and the birth of two children.

Their daughter Carrie Fisher became a film star herself in the first three “Star Wars” films as Princess Leia, and later as a best-selling author of “Postcards From the Edge” and other books.

Carrie Fisher spent most of 2008 on the road with her autobiographical show “Wishful Drinking.” In an interview with The Associated Press, she told of singing with her father on stage in San Jose. Eddie Fisher was by then in a wheelchair and living in San Francisco.

When Eddie Fisher’s best friend, producer Mike Todd, was killed in a 1958 plane crash, Fisher comforted the widow, Elizabeth Taylor. Amid sensationalist headlines, Fisher divorced Reynolds and married Taylor in 1959.

The Fisher-Taylor marriage lasted only five years. She fell in love with co-star Richard Burton during the Rome filming of “Cleopatra,” divorced Fisher and married Burton in one of the great entertainment world scandals of the 20th century.

Fisher’s career never recovered from the notoriety. He married actress Connie Stevens, and they had two daughters. Another divorce followed. He married twice more.

Edwin Jack Fisher was born Aug. 10, 1928, in Philadelphia, one of seven children of a Jewish grocer. At 15 he was singing on Philadelphia radio. …”

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pkHtqhe7byA

Eddie Fisher – I’ll Hold You In My Heart – 1951

EDDIE FISHER – “Wish You Were Here” (1952) – 45 RPM

“I’m Walking Behind You” Eddie Fisher

Eddie Fisher – Everything i have is yours

Eddie Fisher – Lady Of Spain

EDDIE FISHER – UNCHAINED MELODY

1950s Pop Music: Eddie Fisher singing “Tell Me Why” on his TV show (Aired live, 1953)

Eddie Fisher – Count Your Blessings – 1954

Eddie Fisher – Cindy Oh Cindy ( 1956 )

Eddie Fisher Turn Back The Hands Of Time

I Need You Now – Eddie Fisher

Eddie Fisher –Remember

Eddie Fisher – Oh My Papa [1954]

Eddie Fisher – Any Time

Eddie Fisher – On The Street Where You Live – 1956

 

 

 

 

 

 

I remember Eddie Fisher as the singer who married Debbie Reynolds,  then married Elizabeth Taylor, who three years latter left him for Richard Burton.

Only very vaguely do I remember him as a singer.

Today, I learned of his death at age 82 in Berkeley, California.

I was curious as to how good a singer he was.

After listening to the above I concluded he was a great singer.

May he rest in peace.

Background Articles and Videls

“…Edwin Jack “Eddie” Fisher (August 10, 1928 – September 22, 2010) was an American singer and entertainer, who was one of the world’s most famous and successful singers in the 1950s, selling millions of records and having his own TV show. He was married to Debbie Reynolds, Elizabeth Taylor, and Connie Stevens. His divorce from his first wife, Debbie Reynolds, to marry his best friend’s widow, Elizabeth Taylor, garnered scandalously unwelcome publicity at the time. …”

Eddie Fisher, famed 50’s pop singer, father of Carrie Fisher, dies at 82

“…Eddie Fisher, who had a pretty good talent for making hit records and an amazing talent for marrying beautiful women, died Wednesday at the age of 82.

While he began his career as a singer, he eventually became better known as the star in two of Hollywood’s great love triangles – newspaper and magazine coverage of which helped set the stage for today’s media celebrity saturation..

According to an announcement from his family yesterday, Fisher died at his Berkeley, Calif., home from complications of hip surgery.

Fisher originally made his musical mark as one of the last post-World War II “matinee idols,” handsome young singers like Frank Sinatra or Dean Martin whose manner suggested a bit of attitude.

Like many of his peers, his hit-record career didn’t survive music’s transition to rock ‘n’ roll in the mid-‘50s, though he continued as a popular stage act and television host for another three decades.

…”
Read more: http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/2010/09/23/2010-09-23_eddie_fisher_famed_50s_pop_singer_father_of_carrie_fisher_dies_at_85.html#ixzz10TXJVRyz

Eddie Fisher Biography

“…Eddie Fisher (born August 10, 1928) is an American singer and entertainer. He was born Edwin John Fisher in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the fourth of seven children born to Joseph Fisher and Kate Winokur, who were Russian-Jewish immigrants. His father’s surname was originally Fisch, but was anglicised to Fisher upon entry to the United States.

To his family, Fisher was always called “Sonny Boy” or “Sonny,” which may have been an allusion to a song made famous by Al Jolson. It was known at an early age that he had talent as a vocalist and he started singing in numerous amateur contests, which he usually won. He sang on the radio in high school and was later on Arthur Godfrey’s Talent Scouts, a popular contest that was broadcast over the radio before moving to television. By 1946, Fisher was crooning with the bands of Buddy Morrow and Charlie Ventura. He was heard in 1949 by Eddie Cantor at Grossinger’s Resort in the Borscht Belt. After performing on Cantor’s radio show he was an instant hit and gained nationwide exposure. He was then signed to a contract with RCA Victor.

Fisher was drafted into the U.S. Army in 1951 and sent to Texas for basic training. He served a year in Korea. The photos of him in uniform during his time in the Service did not hurt his civilian career; after his discharge he became even more popular singing in top nightclubs. He also had a variety television series, Coke Time with Eddie Fisher (NBC) (1953)-(1957), appeared on Perry Como’s show, The Chesterfield Supper Club, the George Gobel Show, and had another series, The Eddie Fisher Show (NBC) (1957)-(1959).

A pre-Rock and Roll vocalist, Fisher’s strong and melodious tenor made him a teen idol and one of the most popular singers of the 1950s. He had seventeen songs in the Top 10 on the music charts between 1950 and 1956 and thirty-five in the Top 40. …”

http://www.basicfamouspeople.com/index.php?aid=3275

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