Archive for June, 2010

Adam Curtis–The Century of Self–Videos

Posted on June 30, 2010. Filed under: Books, Communications, Digital Communication, Globalization, Issues, Mass Media, Politics, Print Media, Public Relations, Radio, Recordings, Society, Television, Web | Tags: , , , , , , |


Episode 1: “Happiness Machines”

Episode 2: “The Engineering of Consent”

Episode 3: “There is a Policeman Inside All Our Heads: He Must Be Destroyed”

Episode 4: “Eight People Sipping Wine in Kettering”

Documentary: The Origin and History of modern propaganda (public relations), and the story of its creator, Edward Bernays. The story exposes how government and big business manipulate the public’s consent and preps them for the next ‘grand’ idea or product.

Episode 1: “Happiness Machines

1. Propaganda in America – History of Public Relations 1/6

2. Propaganda in America – Meet Edward Bernays

3. Propaganda in America – The Art of PR Spin

4. Propaganda in America – Hitler’s Ideological Beast

5. Propaganda in America – Business vs Politicians

6. Propaganda in America – The Enemy Within

Episode 2: “The Engineering of Consent”

The Century Of The Self – The Engineering of Consent 1 of 6

The Century Of The Self – The Engineering of Consent 2 of 6

The Century Of The Self – The Engineering of Consent 3 of 6

The Century Of The Self – The Engineering of Consent 4 of 6

The Century Of The Self – The Engineering of Consent 5 of 6

The Century Of The Self – The Engineering of Consent 6 of 6

Episode 3: “There is a Policeman Inside All Our Heads: He Must Be Destroyed”

The Century Of The Self – There is a Policeman Inside_1 of 6

The Century Of The Self – There is a Policeman Inside_2 of 6

The Century Of The Self – There is a Policeman Inside_3 of 6

The Century Of The Self – There is a Policeman Inside_4 of 6

The Century Of The Self – There is a Policeman Inside_5 of 6

The Century Of The Self – There is a Policeman Inside_6 of 6

Episode 4: “Eight People Sipping Wine in Kettering”

The Century Of The Self – Eight People Sipping Wine_1 of 6

The Century Of The Self – Eight People Sipping Wine_2 of 6

The Century Of The Self – Eight People Sipping Wine_3 of 6

The Century Of The Self – Eight People Sipping Wine_4 of 6

The Century Of The Self – Eight People Sipping Wine_5 of 6

The Century Of The Self – Eight People Sipping Wine_6 of 6

Background Articles and Videos

edward bernays on letterman

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Going Down and Boobs, Burgers, Beers, BMWs and Balloons!

Posted on June 30, 2010. Filed under: Advertising, Art, Communications, Digital Communication, Ethical Practices, Ethics, Mass Media, Movies, Music, Television, Web | Tags: , , , , , , , , , |

Sex Sells
This is a two-part assignment.

Part 1

Search for advertising: Find two examples of advertising that you personally think crosses the barrier and heads into bad taste. Doesn’t necessarily have to be sexually oriented, it could be gross, ghastly or simply stupid. For example, a fashion designer had an ad campaign a couple of years ago that featured inmates on death row. As part of your answer, you are going to have to describe the ad, unless of course it is a print ad and you are able to copy or scan it and send the image. After finding the ad, the key will be to explain why you think it is too much. There’s no right answer, just your answer. It should be well-thought out and defendable. If you have a hard time finding something that you personally disapprove of, find some advertising that is appropriate in one place, but not another. For example, an advertisement could easily be fine for the readers of Maxim or Cosmopolitan but not be appropriate in Readers Digest, Time and Sports Illustrated.

Going Down

The four selected television commercial advertisements discussed below  may offend some viewers who would say they cross the barrier or line into obscenity, indecency, and profanity and are therefore in bad taste.

While I do not find any of the four television commercial ads in bad taste and cross the line, a case can be made that all four are offensive and should not be run or broadcast on commercial television.

What one person finds inoffensive and amusing, another person may find offensive and in bad taste.

This is  especially true of individuals  from different cultures, religious upbringings, generations, gender, ages, and political ideologies.

Since the advertiser of the product or service is paying for both the production of the commercial ad and the advertising time to broadcast the commercial, they should decide whether to run  the ad, in what markets, and at what time of the day.

The broadcaster of the ad, in this case television stations, should have the right to refuse to run the ad if they believe it would offend a significant number of viewers or be in violation of the law.

The first two commercials are probably the most offensive in terms of the potential number of viewers that would consider them in bad taste or crossing the barrier or  line.

The first ad is for a man’s shower gel, AXE.

A naked man falling into a room full of woman exercising might in and of itself offend some people.

When the naked man then leads the group of woman in their exercises, some might say this crosses the line.

Full frontal nudity is suggested and many people would find this commercial ad inappropriate for commercial television.

Finally, when the man joins another woman in the next room and the women exercise class continues to exercise with a highly suggestive sexual motion, this may definitely offend some people.

The college male is the apparent target audience of the commercial.

Most young men will find it funny and humorous and not offensive at all.

Some will go out and purchase the product, which is the whole point of the ad.

banned commercial – axe – shower girls

Running a commercial for a television program about a woman who is call girl or professional prostitute would offend some people who think the premise for program crosses the line and is in bad taste.

When the actress makes her case as to the benefits of being a call girl, this would also offend many people who would find the commercial inappropriate for commercial television.

Many children could be watching the program.

The parents of these children may find it inappropriate for their children to be exposed to this message should they be watching when the commercial runs.

Highly religious individuals and those from other cultures that do not tolerate prostitution would usually be offended and think both the commercial and the program are in bad taste.

Why I became a call girl

An anti-smoking ad usually would not offend people because it is attempting to stop people from smoking, a highly addictive habit that is not good for your health.

Smokers, however, might not think the ad is very funny.

After September 11, 2001, any commercial having a part of a building and people  falling to their deaths would be disturbing, if not offensive, to New Yorkers and many Americans. For this reason alone I would not run the ad, although I still find the ad funny.

I should disclose that I do not smoke and avoid confined places were people are smoking.

This is a GREAT anti smoking ad

In Europe and America, the use of a music video to promote a group’s new song is fairly common and not usually considered offensive.

The following commercial would fall into this inoffensive category:

The Bangles – Going Down To Liverpool

However, for Moslems, the musical video ad shows women with their faces and hair uncovered in a car with a man who is apparently not a member of the family. This would make the musical video ad offensive and inappropriate for commercial television where Moslems are a significant portion of the audience such as in Saudi Arabia.

Also, woman performing in public to a large audience, even when only suggestive, would be offensive and in bad taste for some audiences, particularly Moslem and Fundamentalists.

Beauty as well as offensiveness is in the eyes and ears of the beholder.

 Part 2

Opinion Essay: Many advertisers rely on sex to sell their products. Why is this? Does sex sell? Why or why not? Does that bother you or are you okay with it? Is there a way for somebody, say conservative parents, to change this emphasis? If you were king/queen of advertising and could make whatever rules you wanted, what limits on sex would you set up to regulate advertising?

Boobs, Burgers, Beers, BMWs and Balloons!

One  reason many advertisers rely on sex or attractive females and males to sell their products is advertisements first need to get the viewer’s attention by cutting  through the noise or clutter of other advertisements so that their commercials get noticed.

Sex is a widely used natural attention-getter.

A commercial ad may be very visible and give the viewing audience the impression it is a great ad.

However, is the commercial working?

While getting consumer attention is very important, the commercial advertisement must also have viewers register the advertiser’s brand and remember the message of the ad.

By combining sex and humor a commercial ad my go viral and become communicable–“Did you see the ad for….”

Humorous and sexy commercial ads are noticed more and get greater viewer audience attention.

Humorous  and sexy commercial ads are most often considered entertainment and not evaluated as to whether the ad’s message is true or false.

Humorous and sexy commercial ads are usually liked more by the viewing audience.

Ads that are liked by their viewers tend to be noticed, recognized and remembered and thus are effective in delivering the ad’s message and registering the ad’s brand.

Ads must also have salience or be in the conscious mind of a viewer at a given moment.

When it is time for breakfast, lunch or dinner, restaurant advertiser wants their ads to  be remembered.

The advertiser wants to be in viewer’s product category cue and preferrable first in line.

The  same is true when you are purchasing a beverage, a car or a condom.

Another reason many advertisers rely on sex or attractive females and males is these advertisements are effective in selling their products or services.

Sexy ads especially when combined with humor get results.

The four commercial advertisements below use both sex and humor to get your attention, stand out, register the advertiser’s brand, and deliver their message:







The advertisers are trying to associate a positive emotion about men and woman and sex appeal with their products–burgers, beers, cars, and condoms through conditioning and repetition of the commercial.

Buy the product and you too can experience the same thrill or emotion.

All the ads first get your attention and keep it with the sexy and/or beautiful woman and man.

When using sex and humor in commercial advertisements one must be careful that one does not offend a significant number of viewers.

What is acceptable and humorous in one culture or one generation may be offensive and not humorous in another culture or generation.

Both sex and humor can be a two-edged sword that cuts both ways.

I have no problems or issues with commercial ads using sex and attractive men and women to sell a product or service.

Parents can complain to the advertisers of the product or service or to the radio and television stations that carry the commercial ads if they have issues or problems with sex and sexy women and men used to sell product or service.

Most advertiser and stations will listen to their complaints.

However, if the ads are selling products and services, they will note and ignore most of the complaints.

Only when a significant number of consumers complain to advertisers and stations will they take note and pull the ad. 

Since I believe in the republican form of consensual government, I have no desire to be either king or queen of advertising or the person who censors advertising.

The government or state should not regulate advertising. 

The advertisers should self-regulate themselves.

Advertising agencies formed the National Advertising Review Board  (NARB) for the purpose  of hearing complaints against advertisers.

About the National Advertising Review Board (NARB)

“…In 1971, the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), the American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA), and the American Advertising Federation (AAF) formed an alliance with the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB) to create an independent self-regulatory body-the National Advertising Review Council (NARC). To ensure the credibility and impartiality of the self-regulation system, the advertising review process operates under the administrative purview of the CBBB.

Established to provide guidance and set standards of truth and accuracy for national advertisers, NARC sets policy for the National Advertising Review Board (NARB), the National Advertising Division (NAD), the Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU) of the CBBB and the Electronic Retailing Self-Regulation Program (ERSP).

The National Advertising Review Board (NARB) is the NARC appeals board. When an advertiser or challenger disagrees with an NAD or CARU recommendation, they may appeal the decision to the NARB for additional review.

The National Advertising Review Board is made up of 70 professionals from three different categories: National Advertisers (40 members), Advertising Agencies (20 members) and Public members (10) made up of academics and former members of the public sector.

NARB members are nominated for their stature and experience in their respective fields. Nominations are made by the National Advertising Review Council’s supporting organizations: the CBBB, ANA, AAAA and AAF. Nominations are submitted to NARC, the governing body of NARB, for election at its annual meeting. The term for membership is two years, and each member is eligible to be re-appointed for two additional two-year terms.”

The advertiser knows that if he offends his target audience, the ad will fail in selling products or services, could damage the company’s reputation and even lead to possible lawsuits that might results in signficant financial damages.

For example on commercial radio and television explicit sex and full frontal nudity are not acceptable in the United States.

Any company that used explicit sex and frontal nudity on commercial radio and television would face damage to its brand and potential damages as a result of a complaint or lawsuit from offended viewers in the United States.

I would let the local community together with the advertisers and stations determine what they consider acceptable and unacceptable in terms of images, videos, and language.

This means the continued ban on full frontal nudity, explicit sex and the ban on certain words.

Also if a commercial advertisement had gratuitous sex and/or violence, I would probably ban the ad.

This would have to be handled on a case by case basis.

If an advertisement is deceptive, restricts competition or otherwise injures the consumer, the consumer can go to Federal Trade Commission and complain.

 The FTC monitors and deters false, fraudulent, misleading and deceptive advertising in interstate commerce.

False and misleading advertising is considered by the FTC as an unfair trade practice which the FTC has jurisdiction over.

The FTC regulates advertising messages to ensure that consumers receive complete, truthful, and nondeceptive advertising.

The  FTC can stop an ad campaign if they find that the ad is deceptive or injures the consumer.

Federal Trade Commission

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates  the broadcast media and as such indirectly regulates and controls commercial advertising. The FCC takes complaints and can make determinations as to whether an advisement for a product or service is misleading and tasteless.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

Certain words are still not acceptable:

The Seven Words 

In summary the limits should be informally set by the community in terms of what actions, images and words are unacceptable.

However, it is still illegal to broadcast obscene or indecent programming and use profane language in the United States.

These are the limits that advertisers as well as stations that are licensed by the Federal Communications Commission must still observe.

If a viewer or listener believes the advertiser or station has crossed the line into obscenity, indecency and profanity, they can always file a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission:

Federal Communications Commission

“…In making obscenity, indecency, and profanity determinations, context is key. The FCC staff must analyze what was actually aired, the meaning of what was aired, and the context in which it was aired. Accordingly, the FCC asks complainants to provide the following information:

  • Information regarding the details of what was actually said or depicted during the broadcast.

    The complainant may choose the format for providing the information, but it must be sufficiently detailed so that the FCC can determine the words or language used, or the images or scenes depicted during the broadcast and the context of those words, language, images, or scenes. Subject matter alone is not sufficient to determine whether material is obscene, indecent, or profane. For example, stating only that the objectionable programming “discussed sex” or had a “disgusting discussion of sex” is not sufficient. Moreover, the FCC must know the context when analyzing whether specific, isolated words or images are obscene, indecent, or profane. The FCC does not require complainants to provide tapes or transcripts in support of their complaints. Consequently, failure to provide a tape or transcript of a broadcast, in and of itself, will not lead to automatic dismissal or denial of a complaint. Nonetheless, a tape or transcript is helpful in processing a complaint and, if available, should be provided.
  • The date and time of the broadcast. Under federal law, if the FCC assesses a monetary forfeiture against a broadcast station for violation of a rule, it must specify the date the violation occurred. Accordingly, it is important that complainants provide the date the material in question was broadcast. Indecent or profane speech that is broadcast between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. is not actionable. Consequently, the FCC must know the time of day that the material was broadcast.
  • The call sign, channel, or frequency of the station involved.

    To take enforcement action for the airing of prohibited material, the FCC must be able to identify the station that aired the material. By providing the call sign, channel, or frequency of the station, you will help us to quickly and efficiently process your complaint. The name of the program, DJ, personality, song, or film; network; and city and state where you heard or saw the program are also helpful.

Any documentation you provide to the FCC about your complaint becomes part of the FCC’s records and may not be returned.


Today Now!: FCC Okays Nudity On TV If It’s Alyson Hannigan

Alternatively, just say no, and either change the channel or turn the radio or television set off.

Drive your BMW to Nando for a double-breasted burger with a bottle of  cool Bavaria beer and bring your Trust condoms in case it suddenly rains.

“That government is best which governs the least, because its people discipline themselves.”

~Thomas Jefferson


Background Information


Adam Curtis–The Century of Self–Videos


Sex In The Media

Mind Control, Psychology of Brainwashing, Sex & Hypnosis

Propaganda, Black Public Relations & Mind Control Report Part 1


Propaganda, Black Public Relations & Mind Control Report Part 2

Sex in Advertising Mind Control Video Psychology Sex Porn Sell


Unlocking You, Human Needs, Self Actualization, How to, Maslow, Humanistic Psychology

Advertising and the mind of the consumer: what workd, what doesn’t, and why

By Max Sutherland and Alice K. Sylvester


Contrary to popular belief, most ads are not designed to make consumers want to run out and buy the product. Using examples from popular international campaigns, this book provides insight into the minds of both creators and consumers of advertising. It demonstrates why one brand is more likely to come to mind than another, dispels the myths behind subliminal advertising, reveals the tricks successful advertisers use, and clarifies how and why some messages work and some misfire. Meant as a tool for both advertising personnel and consumers who are concerned with the messages with which they are being bombarded, the information presented here explains the tactics that are used to make ads more memorable and exposes what advertisers are really trying to achieve. …”

Controversies in Contemporary Advertising

By Kim Sheehan


Suitable for college level classrooms, this text takes a critical look at the economic, political, social, and ethical aspects of advertising. Sheehan (U. of Oregon’s School of Journalism and Communication) includes 17 chapters addressing such issues as stereotyping, controversial products, consumer culture, and new technology, with abundant examples and b&w illustrations. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR …”

The Advertised Mind: Groundbreaking Insights Into How Our Brains Respond to Advertising

By Erik Du Plessis


Research by Erik du Plessis has helped show that the strongest factor predicting an advertisement’s success is how much the ad is liked.  In The Advertised Mind, du Plessis draws on information about the working of the human brain from psychologists, neurologists and artificial intelligence specialists.  He uses this research to suggest why emotion is such an important factor in establishing a firm memory of an advertisement and predisposing consumers to buy the brand that is being advertised.  He explores what “ad-liking” really means and suggests how this emerging paradigm could lead to a new phase in the ongoing effort to obtain maximum return from advertising spending. …”

Taste and Decency survey results

Amusing or offensive, Axe ads show that sexism sells

By Sam McManis

The Sacramento Bee

“… That’s the thing about this advertising campaign: The ads can offend and entertain in equal measure.

But in the past three years, they’ve also been seen as proof by many that American advertising has pushed the envelope to the breaking point.

Last month, the consumer watchdog group Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood began a letter-writing push to Axe’s parent company, Unilever, accusing it of sexism and hypocrisy.

Unilever is also the parent company of Dove, whose latest ad in its “Campaign for Real Beauty” upbraids sexploitation in advertising and tells parents to “Talk to your daughter before the beauty industry does.”

Susan Linn, director of the consumer group and a professor at Harvard Medical School, says the letter-writing effort has spawned more than 2,000 e-mails to Unilever executives. “Unilever needs to have a consistent policy on how it treats women,” Linn says by phone from Cambridge, Mass.

“Either treat them the Dove way or the Axe way. Unilever has dismissed it as just a joke. But, in fact, advertising images have a powerful effect, even if people don’t realize it. Especially if they don’t realize it.”

In response to e-mailed questions, a statement from the company says that the ads are developed for comedic value and are “not meant to be taken literally.” …”

Secret Diary of a Call Girl

 “…Hannah is more than she appears to be in Secret Diary of a Call Girl . Hannah is also Belle, one of the top high-class call girls in the city of London. Hannah and Belle have the same common goal; to make as much money as possible while they still can. This show was originally shown by ITV2… More in the UK (season one from September 27th 2007 till November 15th 2007). This first season was a huge success for ITV2 with up to two million viewers per episode. Early in 2008, US network Showtime was attracted by the show’s success and bought the license to show two seasons in the US (20 episodes). The broadcast is scheduled to start on June 16th 2008. The second season will air on ITV2 starting September 11th 2008. More to the shows success: The controversial sex scenes also resulted in a nomination for best soft core production at the “UK Adult Film Awards” in 2007. But that’s not all! The first season has also been nominated for the “Golden Rose TV award” in the category “best drama”. Only weeks after the first series ended, ITV announced a second series, and production started in early 2008. The third series aired in early 2010 almost simultaneously on ITV2 and the US station SHO. In April 2010 reports claim there will be a fourth series for which Billie Piper will get £2m. …”

Sex in Advertising

“…Sex in advertising is the use of sexual or erotic imagery (also called “sex appeal”) in advertising to draw interest to a particular product, for purpose of sale. A feature of sex in advertising is that the imagery used, such as that of a pretty woman, typically has no connection to the product being advertised. The purpose of the imagery is to attract the attention of the potential customer or user. The type of imagery that may be used is very broad, and would include nudity, cheesecake, and beefcake, even if it is often only suggestively sexual. …”

“…The use of sex in advertising can be highly overt or extremely subtle. It ranges from relatively explicit displays of sexual acts, to the use of basic cosmetics to enhance attractive features.

Over the past two decades, the use of increasingly explicit sexual imagery in consumer-oriented print advertising has become almost commonplace. Sexuality is considered one of the most powerful tools of marketing and particularly advertising[citation needed]. Post-advertising sales response studies have shown it can be very effective for attracting immediate interest, holding that interest, and, in the context of that interest, introducing a product that somehow correlates with that interest.

Gallup & Robinson, an advertising and marketing research firm, has reported that in more than 50 years of testing advertising effectiveness, it has found the use of the erotic to be a significantly above-average technique in communicating with the marketplace, “…although one of the more dangerous for the advertiser. Weighted down with taboos and volatile attitudes, sex is a Code Red advertising technique … handle with care … seller beware; all of which makes it even more intriguing.” This research has led to the popular idea that “sex sells”.

In contemporary mainstream consumer advertising (e.g., magazines, network and cable television), sex is present in promotional messages for a wide range of branded goods. Ads feature provocative images of well-defined women (and men) in revealing outfits and postures selling clothing, alcohol, beauty products, and fragrances. Advertisers such as Calvin Klein, Victoria’s Secret, and Pepsi use these images to cultivate a ubiquitous sex-tinged media presence. Also, sexual information is used to promote mainstream products not traditionally associated with sex. For example, the Dallas Opera recent reversal of declining ticket sales has been attributed to the marketing of the more lascivious parts of its performances (Chism, 1999).[1] …”

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Orson Welles–War of The Worlds–Videos

Posted on June 19, 2010. Filed under: Advertising, Communications, Mass Media, Radio, Recordings | Tags: , , , , |


Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 1)

Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 2)

Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 3)

Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 4)

Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 5)

Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 6)

Orson Welles War of the Worlds (part 7)

Background Articles and Vidoes


War Of The Worlds radio spoof by Orson Wells

War of the Worlds Radio Documentary Part 1

War of the Worlds Radio Documentary Part 2

Orson Welles

“…George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985), best known as Orson Welles, was an American film director, writer, actor, and producer, who worked extensively in film, theatre, television and radio. Noted for his innovative dramatic productions as well as his distinctive voice and personality, Welles is widely acknowledged as one of the most accomplished dramatic artists of the twentieth century, especially for his significant and influential early work and despite his notoriously contentious relationship with Hollywood. His distinctive directorial style featured layered, nonlinear narrative forms, innovative uses of lighting and chiaroscuro, unique camera angles, sound techniques borrowed from radio, deep focus shots, and long takes. Welles’s long career in film is noted for his struggle for artistic control in the face of pressure from studios, which resulted in many of his films being severely edited and others left unreleased. He has thus been praised as a major creative force and as “the ultimate auteur.”[1]

Welles first found national and international fame as the director and narrator of a 1938 radio adaptation of H. G. Wells’s novel The War of the Worlds which, performed in the style of a news broadcast, was reported to have caused widespread panic when listeners supposedly thought that an extraterrestrial invasion was occurring. Although these reports of panic were mostly false,[2] they rocketed Welles to instant notoriety. Citizen Kane (1941), his first film with RKO, in which he starred in the iconic role of Charles Foster Kane, is often considered the greatest film ever made. Several of his other films, including The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), Touch of Evil (1958), Chimes at Midnight (1965), and F for Fake (1974), are also widely considered to be masterpieces.[3][4][5]

In 2002 he was voted the greatest film director of all time in the British Film Institute’s poll of Top Ten Directors.[6][7] Welles, who was also an extremely well regarded actor, was voted number 16 in AFI’s 100 Years… 100 Stars list of the greatest film actors of all time. He was also a celebrated Shakespearean stage actor and was well known for his baritone voice.[8]

Welles was also an accomplished magician, starring in troop variety shows in the war years. …”

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When Radio Was–Videos

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When Radio Was–Videos

Posted on June 19, 2010. Filed under: Books, Communications, Issues, Law, Movies, Music, Radio, Recordings, Regulations, Television | Tags: , , , , |


When Radio Was #1

When Radio Was #2

When Radio Was #3

When Radio Was #4

When Radio Was #5

When Radio Was #6

When Radio Was #7

Background Articles and Videos

Dick Cavett

“…Richard Alva “Dick” Cavett (born November 19, 1936) is a former American television talk show host known for his conversational style and in-depth discussion of issues. Cavett appeared regularly on nationally broadcast television in the United States in five consecutive decades, the 1960s through the 2000s.

In recent years, Cavett has written a blog for the New York Times, promoted DVDs of his former shows, and hosted replays of his classic TV interviews with Groucho Marx, Katharine Hepburn, and others on Turner Classic Movies channel.[1][2] …”

Radio History

The History of Radio

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Orson Welles–War of The Worlds–Videos

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Chapter 16—International Media

Posted on June 11, 2010. Filed under: Globalization, International Media | Tags: , , , |


1. In what ways might a nation’s media system be shaped by its government’s political philosophy? Cite some specific examples.

2. Compare the evolution of mass media in Western Europe and Africa. Give specific examples.

3. Describe the role of media before and after the decline of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

4. Discuss the role of radio in developed and less-developed countries. Cite specific examples.

5. Name the media baron who holds the monopoly over Australian media. Discuss his role in his country’s media, as well as that of the Australian Broadcasting Corp.

6. Discuss the pervasive role of the media in Japan. What role do NHK and the three major daily newspapers play in Japanese media?

 7. How does accessible worldwide news on the Internet affect the global information marketplace? Cite specific examples.

8. Discuss MTV’s effects on “borderless” communications. How does this affect viewers and advertisers?

9. Define three important issues addressed in the New World Information and Communications Order.

10. Discuss at least three ways in which the 1996 international copyright treaties have changed the Internet.

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Chapter 15 Ethical Practices and Policies

Posted on June 11, 2010. Filed under: Communications, Ethical Practices, Ethics, Mass Media, Policies | Tags: , , , , , , |

1. In 1986, more than 10,000 journalists visited Disney World, most of them on a junket. Why is this an ethical issue? Would you, as a reporter, accept such a trip?

2. How can “checkbook journalism” affect the quality of reporting?

3. Describe the ethical dilemma facing a reporter who learns a public figure is suffering from AIDS.

4. Explain what happened in the case of the staged GM truck explosion situation. Why was all of NBC’s news coverage compromised by that event?

5. Discuss the ethics of the kind of reporting done by Matt Drudge in “The Drudge Report” as discusses in the textbook. What, if any, ethical standards does he appear to apply? Are his methods appropriate for an online news site? Why or why not?

6. Should reporters transmit messages and/or pictures that result from events of terrorism? Why? Why not?

7. Pick any of the ethical situations specified in Chapter 15, and describe how each of the following philosophical principles would define your decision. A. Aristotle’s golden mean B. Kant’s categorical imperative C. Mill’s principle of utility D. Rawls’ veil of ignorance

8. What effect do you believe ethical codes, such as those described in Chapter 15, have on the professionals for whom they have been adopted?

9. How effective has the use of news councils, readers’ representatives and correction boxes been in overcoming ethical abuses and erroneous reporting?

10. Discuss the Poynter Institute’s 10-step approach to ethical decisionmaking. List at least three of the questions it recommends that journalists should ask themselves, and describe the questions in some detail.

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Chapter 14—Law and Regulations

Posted on June 11, 2010. Filed under: Communications, Law, Mass Media, Regulations | Tags: , , , |

1. Cite the major events/legal decisions in the evolution of the interpretation of the First Amendment in America from its beginnings to today.

2. According to what you know about broadcast regulation, why were broadcasters likely to follow the 1943 Code of Wartime Practices for American Broadcasters?

3. Why was New York Times v. Sullivan such a precedent-setting case for the American media?

4. List and describe the four elements necessary to prove libel.

5. Although the Sharon and Westmoreland cases did not result in libel awards, what did the cases reveal about the media?

6. How are the V-chip and the Children Online Protection Act designed to protect children? Explain each with specific details.

7. Why is Roth v. United States important in the history of censorship in America?

8. Discuss four of the most critical elements of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 and explain how each significantly changes U.S. communications law or policy.

9. Why are the courts generally so reluctant to use prior restraint to stop publication? List two cases in which the courts did invoke prior restraint.

10. How did the decision in the Sheppard v. Maxwell case affect the issue of fair trial and free press?

11. List two things the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) makes illegal. Why do supporters claim it is a good law? Why do opponents object to it?

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Chapter 13—Social and Political Issues

Posted on June 11, 2010. Filed under: Communications, Issues, Mass Media, Politics, Society | Tags: , , , , |


1. How did each of the following people contribute to media effects research? a. David M. Potter b. Marshall McLuhan c. Harold D. Lasswell d. George Gerbner

2. Describe three studies involving children and TV and discuss the results. Why are children often the subject of television effects research?

3. How did FDR’s Fireside Chats and hundreds of press conferences change the way the media covered politicians?

4. According to current research on political ads, what is the major group of people likely to be affected by such ads and why?

5. Identify the conclusions of the following studies: a. Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann’s “spiral of silence” b. The California Assessment Program c. Loving with a Vengeance: Mass-Produced Fantasies for Women by Tania Modleski

6. How would you respond to the following questions from Neil Postman: a. What redefinitions of important cultural meanings do new sources, speeds, contexts, and forms of information require? b. How do different information forms dictate the type of content that is expressed?

7. Do you agree with Joshua Meyrowitz’s conclusion that TV, by providing a single information environment, is blurring social distinctions, including those between men and women and between children and adults? Why or why not? Give specific examples.

8. Discuss the findings of the Hadley Cantril study about the magic bullet theory.

9. If John F. Kennedy was lauded as the first “television president,” describe how subsequent presidents have used and/or abused TV.

10. Discuss three possible reasons, according to the text, why Carolyn Martindale says that most nonwhite groups in media are visible “only in glimpses.”

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Chapter 12—News and Information

Posted on June 11, 2010. Filed under: Communications, Mass Media, News, Newspapers, Print Media, Radio, Television, Web | Tags: , , |


1. When did the Golden Age of Television begin? What kinds of shows were featured then? Why was it significant to the media landscape?

2. List two specific ways in which news coverage changed during the Civil War.

3. How has the Internet changed consumers’ news landscape/availability? List three specific ways.

4. Discuss the ways in which reality shows and infomercials mislead viewers. Give two specific examples.

5. Give an example of a news story that would convey each of the following news values: a. responsible capitalism, b. individualism, c. altruistic democracy

6. What kind of person is the “typical” journalist, according to Wilhoit and Weaver’s 1996 study? List at least four specific things.

7. Some press critics argue that journalists often present establishment viewpoints and are unlikely to challenge prevailing political and social values. List two specific examples of this trend and why you agree or disagree.

8. Define consensus journalism and explain some of the reasons journalists practice it. Do they do this consciously? Why or why not?

9. What is the “digital tide”? Give one specific example of this and explain why.

10. Define the two types of “agenda-setting” and explain some of the problems associated with it.

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Chapter 11—Public Relations

Posted on June 11, 2010. Filed under: Communications, Mass Media, Public Relations | Tags: , , |

1. Cite the major landmarks in the development of public relations. What did each development contribute to the evolution of public relations?

2. Why is public relations not a medium? What role does it play in the mass media industries?

3. How did each of the following people contribute to the development of public relations? A. Ivy Lee and George F. Parker, b. Edward L. Bernays, c. Doris Fleischman

4. Explain in some detail how the Office of War Information contributed to positive public relations for World War II.

5. How is the Internet used today to promote products? How is it used for negative PR?

6. How can crisis public relations be used by a company to diffuse a difficult situation? Give an example.

7. What is the relationship between public relations agencies and news gathering?

8. Discuss in detail several of the qualities of a good, ethical PR person today. Offer examples of unethical practices.

9. Describe the ways that advertising and public relations are different. Describe the ways that they are similar.

10. What are the advantages for public relations firms of “press release journalism” and the widespread use of video news releases? What are some of the disadvantages to media consumers?

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