Survey of Broadcasting: Assignment 1, Question 3: Describe in detail the four “core” departments usually found at most radio stations.

Posted on June 20, 2011. Filed under: Law, Music, News, Public Relations, Radio, Regulations, Technology, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , |

3: Describe in detail the four “core” departments usually found at most radio stations.

The four “core departments” usually found at most radio stations are sales, operations, engineering, and programming.

The sales department  led by a sales manager is responsible for the sale of all commercial time to local, regional, and national sales advertisers. Larger stations may have a sales manager for local advertisers and a national sales manager of spot advertising accounts. The sales department usually includes a promotions director and research manager.

The operations department or traffic department led by an operations manager is responsible for placing the advertising on the air in compliance with the contracts executed with advertisers. This can be a complicated and difficult task in that there may be dozens of different contracts each requiring scheduled air time, position and length. Therefore many stations have automated their traffic functions to varying degrees using computer applications and systems.

The engineering department led by the chief engineer is responsible for keeping the station on the air with the best signal possible. The improvement of electronic equipment, competition from other businesses for engineering talent, and relaxed Federal regulations has led to smaller or streamlined engineering departments at most stations. Some stations also employ a part-time consulting engineer to keep the station operating optimally.

The programming department led by the program director is responsible for the audio sound and format of the station including news, music and public affairs coverage. Stations with a news/talk format may have a news director to coordinate news and public affairs coverage. Stations with a music format may have a music director to coordinate the development and implementation of the station’s music format.

The general manager or station manager has overall responsibility for  leading the four “core departments” and the day-to-day operation of the radio station. The general manager must hire the department heads and establish their goals and monitor and evaluate their performance. The general manager has overall responsibility for the station’s business performance including profits and losses, business and financial matters, budgeting, and forecasting revenues and expenses. The general manager must maintain the station’s reputation in the community. Finally the general manager must run the station in compliance with all local, county, state and Federal government laws and regulations.


Background Articles and Videos

CBS Tour- On Air at WCBS Radio -Part1


Google Radio Automation Product Tour


Presenter Radio Automation Demo from ENCO Systems


iMediaTouch Radio Automation Broadcast Software by OMT Technologies

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Sound Design–Videos

Posted on October 8, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Communications, Digital Communication, Movies, Music, Radio, Recordings, Sound Effects, Speech | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

WALL-E Special Features Animation Sound Design: Building Worlds From The Sound Up (Part 1)

WALL-E Special Features Animation Sound Design: Building Worlds From The Sound Up (Part 2)

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 1 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 2 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 3 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 4 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 5 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 6 of 7

Sound Design for King Kong (Post/production) 7 of 7

A Tour of LA’s Village Recording Studio

Deep Recording Studios – The Tour

Deep Studios Industry Training – Sound Engineering

Main Points To Remember

1. Sound design is the process of creating the overall sonic character of a production and is ongoing throughout the production process.

2. The sound designer is responsible for creative control of the audio–to put a coherent sonic stamp on a production–although all members of the audio team make creative contributions to the sound.

3. There are three domains to work with in creating a sound design: speech, sound effects, and music. Paradoxically, silence and the ability of sound to evoke a picture in the mind’s eye may be considered two other domains.

4. All sound is made up of the same basic components: pitch, loudness, timbre, tempo, rhythm, attack, duration, and decay.

5. Sound also has a visual component in that it can create pictures in the “theater of the mind.”

6. Sound has several functions in relation to picture; Sound can parallel picture, sound can define picture, picture can define sound and picture can define effect, and sound can counterpoint picture.

7. There  is no set procedure for designing sound. At the outset the most important thing to do is study the script and analyze the auditory requirements line by line to determine the overall sonic approach to various scenes or for an entire work, or both.

8. Determining a sound design involves consideration of how the audience is to think or feel about a particular story, scene, character, or action; from what point of view; and whether that is to be carried out mainly in the sound effects or music or both.

9. Determining a sound design also requires the awareness that doing so is often tantamount to defining a production’s conceptual and emotional intent.

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News Journal: Number 25, October 6, 2010: 2012 Presidential Race: Barack Obama/Hillary Clinton vs. Newt Gingrich/Sarah Palin vs. Ron Paul/Christine O’Donnell–The Times Are A Changin’–Videos

Posted on October 6, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Communications, Digital Communication, Issues, Law, Mass Media, Music, News, Newspapers, Politics, Radio, Society, Television, Web | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Obama-Clinton ticket ‘on the table,’ Woodward says

Obama Administration Is Seriously Considering Hillary Clinton As VP Come 2012

Newsmaker: Newt Gingrich on running for president

Gingrich: Obama Is “The Most Radical President In American History”

Sarah Palin takes on Obama at SRLC-A

Sarah Palin On Running For President in 2012

Ron Paul: “Not Quite” Ready to Launch 2012 Presidential Campaign

Ron Paul has issued a sobering warning to us all

Ron Paul: O’Donnell Can Win – We Live In Revolutionary Times!

Christine O’Donnell on socialism in America

Rush Limbaugh on Christine O’Donnell

Christine O’Donnell’s Potential as a Senator

Mark Levin Interviews Christine O’Donnell after primary

After this November elections in which the Republican Party is expected to win a majority in the House of Representatives and may be even the Senate, President Obama will be looking for ways to overcome a vote of no confidence by the American people.

Obama has already lost the independents, older voters, and men and most Republicans cannot wait to defeat him in 2012.

Obama needs to attract women voters if he has any chance at all to win in 2012.

Therefore, the political ruling class are all a buzz that he pull the old switcheroo.

Move Hillary Clinton from her Secretary of State position to the Vice-President position on the 2012 Democratic Party ticket and offer Vice-President Biden the Secretary of State position.

If President Obama did this, he would unite the Democratic Party and forestall a primary challenge by Hillary Clinton in 2012 for the Democratic Presidential Nomination, that she might very well win.

I think this would be a smart move given the possibility of a woman on the Republican Presidential ticket in 2012.

Newt Gingrich will be running for President in 2012 and will pick Sarah Palin as his running mate.

Ron Paul may be running again and if he does he will attract the youth vote and the woman vote should he select a woman for the Vice-President spot.

Should Christine O’Donnell win the Delaware Senate seat, she would make a great running mate to get both the youth and woman vote not to mention the men and older voters.

Will Ron Paul run?

Will Ron Paul run as a Republican or a tea party Libertarian?

A Ron Paul/Christine O’Donnell Libertarian Party ticket would make the 2012 Presidential race very interesting.

The grassroot tea party movement would most likely support a Paul/O’Donnell ticket over a Gingrich/Palin ticket.

Both the Republican and Democratic parties have over the last six years lost the support of major portions of its political base.

Many movement conservatives are now independents.

Yes, independents and the tea party patriots will vote Republican in 2010, however, if the Republicans revert back to form, they will lose them again in 2012.

Should this happen, then either a new third-party or the Libertarian Party will be the primary beneficiary.

Two years are a long time in politics.

The winner for the Presidency in 2012 will need to have money, organization, message, momentum, and ambition (MOMMA) to win.

While I expected Newt Gingrich to run in 2008 and would have supported him, I am waiting to see what the Republicans do in 2011 and 2012.

Should the Republican establishment fail to support the FairTax, surplus budgets, immigration law enforcement, and close down several Federal Departments and agencies, I would vote for a Ron Paul/Christine O’Donnell on a new third-party ticket.

The time to cut the size and scope of the Federal Government by at least 50% is now.

If the Republicans do not have the leaders or courage to make these changes, then the American people will turn to a new political party with the leaders that do.

The times they are a changin.

Bob Dylan – The Times They Are a-Changin’

Background Articles and Videos

Christine O’Donnell analyzes 2008 Presidential Race on Fox News “Fox & Friends” program

Obama-Clinton ticket ‘on the table,’ Woodward says

By Alexander Mooney

“…The scenario – whereby Vice President Joe Biden and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton would switch positions – has been bandied about by political observers for months, seen by some as a potentially savvy strategy to gin up excitement among what appears to be a depressed Democratic base.But it’s never been clear if the idea has been actually discussed in the White House, until now.

“President Obama needs some of the women, Latinos, retirees that she did so well with during the [2008] primaries and, so they switch jobs, not out of the question, and the other interesting question is, Hillary Clinton could run in her own right in 2016 and be younger than Ronald Reagan when he was elected president.”

Clinton will be 69 years old and three months in January 2017. President Ronald Reagan was just shy of his 70th birthday in January, 1980.

“Now you talk to Hillary Clinton or her advisers and they say ‘no, no there’s not a political consideration here,'” Woodward continued. “Of course the answer is, you point out to them that her clout around the world when she goes to Europe, Asia, anywhere is in part, not just because she’s Secretary of State or because she was married to President Clinton, that people see a potential future president in her.” …”

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Internet Audio Production

Posted on October 4, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Communications, Digital Communication, Law, Mass Media, Music, Radio, Recordings, Web | Tags: , |

Digital Video File Formats Part 1

Video File Formats Part 2

Key Main Points To Remember


1. Achieving digital-quality sound transmission over the Internet depends on several factors, not the least of which are computer and loudspeakers capable of delivering the high-quality audio.

2. Among the factors relevant to high-quality audio are the connection speed and reducing file size.

3. Reducing file size can be done by file manipulation or data compression.

4. File manipulation includes reducing sampling rate, word length, number of channels, and playing time and, with music, using instrumental instead of vocal-based tracks.

5. Playing time can be reduced by editing through compression of the dynamic range, noise reduction, and equalization.

6. Compression can be either lossless, preserving the original information, or lossy, with high-compression ratios where some data is filtered out.

7.  Protocols used for data compression include adaptive differential pulse code modulation, a-law and u-law, ReadAudio, MPEG-2 layer 3 technology, MPEG-2 AAC, and MPEG-4 AAC.

8.  File formats facilitate the saving of digital audio files.

9. The difference between streaming and nonstreaming is that streaming allows audio data to be sent across a computer network with no interruptions at the receiving end, although, in practice, interruptions do occur with slower connections.

10. Downloading nonstreaming data is usually slow and therefore limited to small files.

11. The principle behind streaming technologies is buffering.

12. With streaming technology the transmission process passes through the encoder, the server, the Internet, and the player.

13. Using secure file servers, it is possible to do  collaborative audio production online by uploading and downloading such audio materials as music, voice-overs, and sound effects. Virtual studios that facilitate real-time recording are not yer technologically feasible.

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Consoles and Control Surfaces–Videos

Posted on October 2, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Communications, Digital Communication, Mass Media, Music, Radio, Recordings, Television, Web | Tags: , , , |

How a Radio Station Works : Radio Station Equipment: On-Air Mixing Board

How a Radio Station Works : Functions of Radio Station On-Air Mixing Board

The Big Studio Control Room

Big Studio Mixing Console

The Dave Ramsey Show Control Room


Main Points to Remember

1. Mixers and consoles take input signals and amplify, balance, process, combine, and route them to broadcast or recording. 

2. The differences between a mixer and a console are that a mixer is small, highly portable, and performs limited processing functions, whereas a console is larger and performs numerous processing function. In many consoles these functions are computer-assisted. 

3. Consoles have at least three basic control sections: input, output, and monitor. Many consoles have an additional master control section. 

4. The input section takes incoming signals and routes them to the output section

5. The output section routes signals to broadcast or recording

6. The master section contains, among other things, the master output bus (or buses) that routes the final mix to the master recorder

7. The monitor section enables signals to be heard. 

8. On-air broadcast consoles, particularly for radio, do not have to be as elaborate as production consoles because most of the audio they handle has been produced already. 

9. Split-section consoles have separate input,output, master, and monitor sections. In-line consoles bring the input and output functions vertically in line, enabling any signal processing to be routed to the monitor or master system. 

10. The main sections of an in-line console are: input/output, master, monitor, and communications

11. The input/output section includes: input/output channel strip; microphone preamplifier input module; microphone preamplifier; phantom power; trim; overload, or peak, indicator; pad; polarity (phase) reversal; channel assignment and routing; direct switch; pan pot; equalizer and filter; dynamics section; channel/monitor control; cue and effects (D/X or EFX) sends; solo and prefader listen (PFL); mute (channel on/off); channel and monitor faders; and meters. 

12. The volume unit (VU) meter is a voltage meter that measures the amount of electic energy flowing through the console. The meter has two scales: percentage of modulation and volume units. Percentage of modulation is the percentage of an applied signal in relation to the maximum signal a sound system can handle. 

13. The Vu meter responds to average sound intensity, unlike the peak program peter (pm), which is designed to indicate transient peaks

14. The master section includes: master buses, master fade, master effects sends and returns, level and mute controls, meters, and other functions. 

15. The communication section includes: talkback, slate/talkback, an oscillator, and a patch bay. 

16. Most analog production consoles include a patch bay, a central routing terminal to which are wired the inputs and outputs of the console or the equipment in a studio, or both. The patch bay makes multiple signal paths possible. Patch cords plugged into jacks connect the routing circuits.

17. The signal paths that are used most often are wired together at the terminals of the patch bay. This normals these routes and makes it unnecessary to use patch cords to connect them. It is possible to break normal and reate toher signal paths by patching.

18. Plugs at the end of patch cords are either unbalanced, comprising a tip and a sleeve, or balanced, comprising a tip, ring, and sleeve.

19. Console automation makes it possible to automate fade functions, decoding positional information as adjustments in level are made. The data is stored in and retrieved from computer memory.

20. There are four types of console automation systems in use: voltage-controlled automationmoving-fader automation, software-controlled automation, and MIDI-based automation.

21. Console automation systems have at least the three basic operating modes: write, read, and update.

22. Digital consoles use the assignable concept in three configurations: in an analog console that is digitally controlled, in an all-digital controlled, in an all-digital console, and in a virtual console which is not a console per se, but an integrated system that combines a hard-disk computer and specialized software to record and process audio directly to disk.

23. With digital consoles, instead of individual controls for channel-to-rack routing on each channel strip, these function have been centralized into single sets so they can be assigned to any channel. Once assigned, the commands are stored in the console;s computer, so different functions can be assigned to other channels. There is no physical connection between the controls on the console surface and the audio circuit elements.

24. A digital control surface provides external control of a virtual audio environment. There are two main types of control surface: general-purpose controllers that can work with a wide range of gear and dedicated controllers that work with specific software.

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News Journal: Number 20, September 24, 2010: Eddie Fisher Dies At 82–Videos

Posted on September 24, 2010. Filed under: Audio, Books, Books, Magazines, Mass Media, Movies, Music, Newspapers, Print Media, Radio, Recordings, Society, Television, Web | Tags: , , , |

By the time I was thirty-three years old I`d been married to America`s sweetheart and America`s femme fatale and both marriages had ended in scandal; I`d been one of the most popular singers in America and had given up my career for love; I had fathered two children and adopted two children and rarely saw any of them; I was addicted to methamphetamines and I couldn`t sleep at night without a huge dose of Librium. And from all this I had learned one very important lesson: There were no rules for me. I could get away with anything so long as that sound came out of my throat.

Pop Singer Eddie Fisher Dies at Age 82

50s pop singer Eddie Fisher dies at age 82

“…Pop singer Eddie Fisher, whose clear voice brought him a devoted following of teenage girls in the early 1950s before marriage scandals overshadowed his fame, has died at age 82.
He passed away Wednesday night at his home in Berkeley of complications from hip surgery, his daughter, Tricia Leigh Fisher of Los Angeles, told The Associated Press.

“Late last evening the world lost a true America icon,” Fisher’s family said in a statement released by publicist British Reece. “One of the greatest voices of the century passed away. He was an extraordinary talent and a true mensch.”

The death was first reported by Hollywood website

In the early 50s, Fisher sold millions of records with 32 hit songs including “Thinking of You,” “Any Time,” “Oh, My Pa-pa,” “I’m Yours,” “Wish You Were Here,” “Lady of Spain” and “Count Your Blessings.”

His fame was enhanced by his 1955 marriage to movie darling Debbie Reynolds — they were touted as “America’s favorite couple” — and the birth of two children.

Their daughter Carrie Fisher became a film star herself in the first three “Star Wars” films as Princess Leia, and later as a best-selling author of “Postcards From the Edge” and other books.

Carrie Fisher spent most of 2008 on the road with her autobiographical show “Wishful Drinking.” In an interview with The Associated Press, she told of singing with her father on stage in San Jose. Eddie Fisher was by then in a wheelchair and living in San Francisco.

When Eddie Fisher’s best friend, producer Mike Todd, was killed in a 1958 plane crash, Fisher comforted the widow, Elizabeth Taylor. Amid sensationalist headlines, Fisher divorced Reynolds and married Taylor in 1959.

The Fisher-Taylor marriage lasted only five years. She fell in love with co-star Richard Burton during the Rome filming of “Cleopatra,” divorced Fisher and married Burton in one of the great entertainment world scandals of the 20th century.

Fisher’s career never recovered from the notoriety. He married actress Connie Stevens, and they had two daughters. Another divorce followed. He married twice more.

Edwin Jack Fisher was born Aug. 10, 1928, in Philadelphia, one of seven children of a Jewish grocer. At 15 he was singing on Philadelphia radio. …”

Eddie Fisher – I’ll Hold You In My Heart – 1951

EDDIE FISHER – “Wish You Were Here” (1952) – 45 RPM

“I’m Walking Behind You” Eddie Fisher

Eddie Fisher – Everything i have is yours

Eddie Fisher – Lady Of Spain


1950s Pop Music: Eddie Fisher singing “Tell Me Why” on his TV show (Aired live, 1953)

Eddie Fisher – Count Your Blessings – 1954

Eddie Fisher – Cindy Oh Cindy ( 1956 )

Eddie Fisher Turn Back The Hands Of Time

I Need You Now – Eddie Fisher

Eddie Fisher –Remember

Eddie Fisher – Oh My Papa [1954]

Eddie Fisher – Any Time

Eddie Fisher – On The Street Where You Live – 1956







I remember Eddie Fisher as the singer who married Debbie Reynolds,  then married Elizabeth Taylor, who three years latter left him for Richard Burton.

Only very vaguely do I remember him as a singer.

Today, I learned of his death at age 82 in Berkeley, California.

I was curious as to how good a singer he was.

After listening to the above I concluded he was a great singer.

May he rest in peace.

Background Articles and Videls

“…Edwin Jack “Eddie” Fisher (August 10, 1928 – September 22, 2010) was an American singer and entertainer, who was one of the world’s most famous and successful singers in the 1950s, selling millions of records and having his own TV show. He was married to Debbie Reynolds, Elizabeth Taylor, and Connie Stevens. His divorce from his first wife, Debbie Reynolds, to marry his best friend’s widow, Elizabeth Taylor, garnered scandalously unwelcome publicity at the time. …”

Eddie Fisher, famed 50’s pop singer, father of Carrie Fisher, dies at 82

“…Eddie Fisher, who had a pretty good talent for making hit records and an amazing talent for marrying beautiful women, died Wednesday at the age of 82.

While he began his career as a singer, he eventually became better known as the star in two of Hollywood’s great love triangles – newspaper and magazine coverage of which helped set the stage for today’s media celebrity saturation..

According to an announcement from his family yesterday, Fisher died at his Berkeley, Calif., home from complications of hip surgery.

Fisher originally made his musical mark as one of the last post-World War II “matinee idols,” handsome young singers like Frank Sinatra or Dean Martin whose manner suggested a bit of attitude.

Like many of his peers, his hit-record career didn’t survive music’s transition to rock ‘n’ roll in the mid-‘50s, though he continued as a popular stage act and television host for another three decades.

Read more:

Eddie Fisher Biography

“…Eddie Fisher (born August 10, 1928) is an American singer and entertainer. He was born Edwin John Fisher in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the fourth of seven children born to Joseph Fisher and Kate Winokur, who were Russian-Jewish immigrants. His father’s surname was originally Fisch, but was anglicised to Fisher upon entry to the United States.

To his family, Fisher was always called “Sonny Boy” or “Sonny,” which may have been an allusion to a song made famous by Al Jolson. It was known at an early age that he had talent as a vocalist and he started singing in numerous amateur contests, which he usually won. He sang on the radio in high school and was later on Arthur Godfrey’s Talent Scouts, a popular contest that was broadcast over the radio before moving to television. By 1946, Fisher was crooning with the bands of Buddy Morrow and Charlie Ventura. He was heard in 1949 by Eddie Cantor at Grossinger’s Resort in the Borscht Belt. After performing on Cantor’s radio show he was an instant hit and gained nationwide exposure. He was then signed to a contract with RCA Victor.

Fisher was drafted into the U.S. Army in 1951 and sent to Texas for basic training. He served a year in Korea. The photos of him in uniform during his time in the Service did not hurt his civilian career; after his discharge he became even more popular singing in top nightclubs. He also had a variety television series, Coke Time with Eddie Fisher (NBC) (1953)-(1957), appeared on Perry Como’s show, The Chesterfield Supper Club, the George Gobel Show, and had another series, The Eddie Fisher Show (NBC) (1957)-(1959).

A pre-Rock and Roll vocalist, Fisher’s strong and melodious tenor made him a teen idol and one of the most popular singers of the 1950s. He had seventeen songs in the Top 10 on the music charts between 1950 and 1956 and thirty-five in the Top 40. …”

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Unit 2 Part 2 Modern and Traditional Advertising Techniques.

Posted on July 22, 2010. Filed under: Advertising, Bandwagon, Bathroom, Communications, Contextual, Keyword/Pay Per Click/Cost Per Action, Magazines, Mass Media, Mobile, Movies, Music, Newspapers, Pixel, Placement, Print Media, Public Relations, Radio, Television, Testimonials/Endorsements, Web, Web Banner | Tags: , , , , , |

Part 2: Compose a 500-word essay comparing and contrasting modern advertising methods with traditional methods (read attached article “Modern Advertising Methods”).

Focus on how advertising has changed and/or stayed the same. Post this essay in your blog by Thursday, July 22 at 5 p.m. 

There are several types of advertising including : 

1. Product/service 

2. Branding 

3. Institutional/issue 

4. Public service announcement. 

There are also several advertising media: 

1. Print media (newspaper and magazines) 

2. Electronic media (radio and television) 

3. Online (computer and cellphone) 

4. Public spaces (billboards, buildings, buses, bus stops, taxis and signs) 

5. Directly to people (direct mail and telemarketing). 

As new media were developed the methods of advertising changed. The first advertisements were in local newspapers. 

This was followed by advertisements in magazines for a broader regional or national audience. 

The print media advertisements were largely text supplemented with illustrations and later photographs and the use of color. 

With the advent of commercial radio broadcasts, audio (voice and music) was used to advertise products and services to radio show listeners. 

 When television took off starting in 1948, advertisers still used text, illustrations, photographs and audio in their commercials that were first in black and white, then color and now high-definition. 

Now, however film or videos could be used to make commercials that were broadcast to television show viewers. 

Starting in 1995 the internet and the world-wide web  provided  a media where the viewer of a web site could interact with the advertising by first searching for the specific information and next selecting the advisement that was most relevant to them. 

This interaction consisted primarily of the viewer clicking on buttons or hyperlinks or filling out forms that were submitted and saved in databases. 

Today advertising in print media such as  newspapers and magazines and broadcasting media such as radio and television are  considered traditional advertising. 

Modern advertising increasingly uses the world-wide web to deliver the advertisers’ message aimed primarily  sell the products and services and the  brand name of the advertiser. 

Both traditional and modern advertising still use text, illustrations, photographs, images, audio, movies and videos as media to deliver the advertiser’s message.  

As consumers spent more and more time on computers and cell phones and less time reading newspapers and magazines,  listening to radio, and watching television, the advertisers started moving more and more of their advertising budget to online advertising on web sites viewed either on a personal computer or cell phone. 

Text,  illustrations and photographs first used in traditional advertising are also  being used in modern advertising including web banner, blog, mobile, contextual, keyword, promotional, pixel and public relation advertising. 

With traditional radio and television advertising the listener or viewer must watch a scheduled television broadcast which includes the advertiser’s commercial message. The communication is largely one way from the source to the receiver of the advertiser’s message. The audience is large, heterogenous, anonymous (usually unknown) and passive with little opportunity for feedback. 

With modern online advertising the viewer or listener can actively interact with the advertiser’s message by deciding first whether they even want to see the advertisement and then have an opportunity to fill out a form to obtain additional information and free promotional items  from the advertiser or even purchase the product or service over the web. The communication is two-way from the source to the receiver and back again,. The audience is smaller and targeted, more homogeneous, known and active with opportunities for immediate and later feedback. 

The techniques of modern advertising are different from traditional advertising and largely reflect the new media’s use of computers, mobile devices or cell phones, and networks to deliver the advertiser’s message. 

Advertising on web sites consists mainly of web banner ads appearing on the top of a web page. 

The early web banner ads were largely static text combined with images consisting of illustrations and/or photographs. 

Today many web banners ads now have added animations, games and video clips such Flash movies and videos embedded into the web banner ad area of the web page. 

The difference between web banner advertising and television advertising is the computer user decides when and what site to visit and decides whether they want to click on an advertisement to obtain additional information about the product or service being promoted. 

Cable and satellite television do however let the viewer decide when they want to watch a particular program or movie. 

Videos used in television commercials are also being repurposed to be used again in online video advertising . 

More and more people and businesses have blogs or web sites where people and businesses express themselves and respond to comments and questions asked by the blog’s viewers. 

The popularity of blogs has attracted advertisers who place advertisement such as web banner ads or sidebars to promote the sale of their products and service that are relevant to the blog post or blog. 

Advertisers can place and target their ads based on the content, tags and categories of a blog post. 

Viewers of a blog post on a specific subject or  category will also view a web banner ad related to the subject of the  post above the blog post. 

For example a blog post on the American revolution may view a banner ads about American history books or the American revolution. 

Thus the modern advertising techniques of web banner ads and blog advertising enable advertisers to target a very narrow audience of those most interested in the advertisers products and services. 

This is in sharp contrast to both printed media advertising and commercial radio and television advertising where the targeted audience is much broader. 

Many advertisements on web sites and blogs previously seen on a computer screen are now also available for viewing on cell phones. 

This advertising is called mobile advertising or cell phone advertising. Those viewers of an ad may be sent a text message with a promotion or attentional information about a product or service. 

Defining Mobile Marketing

SMS text messaging can be used to send text messages to cell phone users that have expressed an interest in receiving information or an advertising message about a product or service. 


Part 1: Introduction to Mobile Marketing



Part 2: Introduction to Mobile Marketing

Modern advertising includes both contextual advertising and keyword advertising techniques that are used on web sites with search engine applications. 

Today’s search engines are used by both computer and cell phone users to seek information. 

Search engine sites such as Google, Bing and Yahoo use contextual advertising to display the most relevant advertisements. 

Based on the entry typed into the search engine box, advertisements will be displayed usually at the top of the returned results page or in a separate column or panel on the far right or left of the web site page.
Keyword advertising also known as pay-per-click and cost per action advertising are used by search engine sites to sell advertising space on the web site pages to advertisers. Advertisers pay-per-click for viewers who click on an advertisement on the search returned page. 

Pay Per Click Advertising Secrets


While online advertising on web sites and blogs is by far the largest portion of modern advertising, the fastest growing is online video ads. 

Also the use of promotional advertising where giving promotional items away also worked very well on the web. An advertiser’s message is pushed to the viewer of a web site and information about the viewer is pulled from them by having the viewer fill out and submit a form to get the free valuable promotional item and information. 

Web 2.0 – Promotion Methods that get Results – Video

However, not all modern advertising is solely online advertising. 

Modern advertising also includes testimonials and endorsements, bandwagon, promotional, and bathroom advertising that has evolved from traditional advertising in the print, electronic and public space media. 

Testimonials and endorsements especially by celebrities, bandwagon and surrogate advertising  use propaganda advertising techniques.  

If some celebrity gives a testimonial and endorsement of a product, then you too are more likely to buy the product. 

With bandwagon advertising you will usually find such words as everyone, ours, we,  yours, universal, call and act now, don’t miss out, join the sensation,  and what are you waiting for? 

What is Propaganda

The advertiser wants you to jump or hop on the bandwagon and purchase their products and services just like everyone else is doing. Bandwagon advertising is  like peer group pressure. If everyone is buying and using the product or service, you should be buying and using the product or service. 

Propaganda Bandwagon

Bandwagon advertising has been used in the past in traditional advertising and is now being used online with YouTube videos as well: 

Hopping on the Advertising Bandwagon…

Getting Your Business on the Blogging Bandwagon

When alcohol and cigarette products are banned from advertising on broadcast radio and television, an advertiser can use surrogate advertising to promote the product using their brand name with another of its products which is not banned under a nation’s laws. 

The following online Youtube advertisement does exactly this by using the brand name, Club Royal, and the drink, apple juice, as a surrogate advertisement for Club Royal Whisky: 

Surrogate Advt for CLUB ROYAL WHISKY produced by AUTUMNCART

Surrogate advertising is also used by pharmaceutical companies who cannot advertise prescription medications. However, pharmaceutical companies can have an informational commercials about a disease or condition and have the  medication branding scattered throughout the advertisement to get consumers used to the brand. 

Modern advertising has even come to public bathrooms with the placement of ads on the back of doors and on mirrors. Face it, you have a captive target audience and theadvertiser’s messages are being read: 

Opportunity Knocks – AllOver Media Restroom Ads


Marketing Mirror/ Mirror Image by LuxuryTec :: The Original

Magic Display Advertising Mirror

Indoor Restroom Digital Billboards Greensboro NC

What is next in the modern advertising world? 

How about high-definition digital signage and interactive mirror advertising? 



An Introduction to Digital Signage

Interactive Mirror for DIESEL GINZA  

All advertising, both traditional and modern, uses some combination of text, images, illustrations, photographs, audio, and video to deliver the advertiser’s message whether that be to promote the sale of goods and services, a brand name, institution, issue or a public service announcement. Advertising is a big, growing and changing business. 


Background Information

Ogilvy’s New Media Guru On Online Advertising


The Future of Online Advertising is Video


Video Ads on YouTube will be Predominately Professional


David Hallerman on Gateway Advertising


Online Video Advertising Must be “Contextual”


What Is Surrogate Advertising? 

“…Surrogate advertising is advertising which embeds a brand or product message inside an advertisement which is ostensibly for another brand or product. For example, a cigarette company might issue public service announcements relating to a topic such as lung cancer, using the company’s logo or distinctive brand colors in the ads so that people are exposed to the company’s branding without seeing an explicit ad for the company’s product. The company would justify the advertisement by claiming that it’s an example of social responsibility. …”

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Advertising Handout 1

Posted on July 15, 2010. Filed under: Advertising, Communications, Digital Communication, Ethics, Magazines, Mass Media, Movies, Music, Newspapers, Print Media, Public Relations, Radio, Television, Web | Tags: , , , , , , |

Handout 1   

Name: Raymond Pronk

Define the following terms:

Advertising: Advertising is providing information, calling attention to, and making known something that you want to sell or promote. Advertising is a message designed to promote or sell a product, a service, or an idea. Advertising reaches people through varied types of mass communication. In everyday life, people come into contact with many different kinds of advertising. Printed ads are found in newspapers and magazines. Poster ads are placed in buses, subways, and trains. Neon signs are scattered along downtown streets. Billboards dot the landscape along our highways. Commercials interrupt radio and television programming.

Marketing: Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.

Public Relations: The art or science of establishing and promoting a favorable relationship with the public and involves creating an understanding for, or goodwill toward a person, company or product.

Public Relations


Advertising Campaign: The activity of attracting public attention to a product or business, as by paid announcements in the print, broadcast, or electronic media.

Ad Copy: The printed text or spoken words in an advertisement. Text of a print, radio, or television advertising message that aims at catching and holding the interest of the prospective buyer, and at persuading him or her to make a purchase all within a few short seconds. The headline of an advertising copy is said to be the most important part, and quite often a small change in its wording brings disproportionate results.

Brand: A name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. The legal term for brand is trademark. A brand may identify one item, a family of items, or all items of that seller.

Brand Positioning


Banner Ad: A graphic image used on Web sites to advertise a product or service. Banner ads, or simply “banners,” are rectangles typically 468 pixels wide by 60 pixels high. They also come in other common sizes, including 460×60, 460×55 and 392×72. Also, a graphic that appears on a web page that is usually hyperlinked to an advertisers web site. May be in a variety of formats including GIF, JPEG, Flash, HTML, Java, JavaScript & more.

Card Rate: Media Broadcast or print publication advertising rate printed and published on a ‘rate card.’ It is the highest rate charged by the media vehicle and almost always subject to discounts. 

Classified Advertising: Advertising appearing in newspapers (although some magazines now also feature classified advertisements) that is arranged according to specific categories or classifications. The text of the advertisements is set in the same size and style of type and the ads are usually without illustration. The three major headings are Employment, Real Estate, and Automotive, although there are many additional categories (e.g., Business Opportunities, Lost and Found, Pets, Personals, and Legal Notices). Classified advertising is usually located in its own separate section of the publication and has its own rate card. It is responsible for a major portion of the publisher’s revenue. Rates are based on the amount of space (words or lines of copy) and the length of time the ad will run. The longer the run, the cheaper the per diem rate will be.

PPC (Pay per click): Online advertising payment model in which payment is based solely on qualifying click-throughs.

Intro to Pay-Per-Click Advertising

Sales: Total dollar amount collected for goods and services provided. While payment is not necessary for recognition of sales on company financial statements, there are strict accounting guidelines stating when sales can be recognized. The basic principle is that a sale can only be recognized when the transaction is already realized, or can be quite easily realized. This means that the company should have already received a payment, or the chances of receiving a payment is high.

ROI:  Return on investment (ROI) is the process used to determine whether the monetary benefits from an expenditure, such as an advertising campaign, are above or below the amount of money spent on the campaign. Depending on the objective of an advertising campaign, the ROI may be hard to determine with certainty.

Position: The consumer perception of a product or service as compared to its competition. The position of the product or service in the mind of the prospect.

Marketing Strategy: How To Position Your Products or Services


Frequency: The number of times a person is exposed to the message

Advertising Budget:  Money set aside by the advertiser to pay for advertising. There are a variety of methods for determining the most desirable size of an advertising budget. An organization’s spending plan for advertising during a particular period of time. The total amount of money that a marketer allocates for advertising over a period of time

Space/Time: A Media Buyer is responsible for purchasing media space or time, as well as developing the campaign and researching how it will be most effective for the client. Their mission is to find a combination of media that will enable the marketer to communicate the message in the most effective manner possible at the minimum cost.

Creative: A general marketing term used for the material used to generate leads and sell advertising developed and designed by art directors and/or copywriters in an ad agency.This term is often used by ad agencies and buyers to refer to ad banners and other forms. The technology used to create a banner or other type of advertising material. Common creative types include GIF, JPEG, Java, HTML, Flash or streaming audio/video. Also used to describe originality or something that has not been previously considered or thought of. This term is applied to people or ideas but not processes or machines. Creatives can be the art directors and copywriters in an ad agency.

Budget: a plan that outlines an organization’s financial and operational goals. So a budget may be thought of as an action plan; planning a budget helps a business allocate resources, evaluate performance, and formulate plans.

Target Accounts: prospective advertiser accounts targeted by advertising agencies for possible future business.

Target Account Video

Media File/Kit: Information offered to potential advertisers by publishers to help advertisers understand the publisher’s rates, visitor demographics, terms, etc. Also referred to as a press kit, this is a packet of marketing and promotional materials a company uses to send to prospective customers and clients. This can include a number of things, but normally includes company information and history, services offered, press coverage, and team players (key executives, etc.). It can also include advertising materials such as flyers, newspaper ads, or cards.

SRDS: A commercial firm that publishes reference volumes that include up-to-date information on rates, requirements, closing dates, and other information necessary for ad placement in the media. The Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) directories list all the relevant information about consumer and trade publications, including a short description of each publication, its editorial content, who the publication goes out to, and breakdown of circulation figures. Using this information, you can compile a list of publications suitable for your advertising.  Founded as Standard Rate and Data Service in 1919, today’s SRDS is a virtual interaction between advertising agencies, marketers and media properties. SRDS is the leading search engine for media opportunities, rates and contact data for magazines, digital media, newspapers, television, direct marketing, out-of-home and radio. SRDS provides media owners the opportunity to showcase their entire portfolio of multi-channel advertising opportunities to media planners and buyers.

Spin: jargon for the point of view or bias you create in a story.

Target Audience: the people you want to reach. A specified audience or demographic group for which an advertising message is designed. The consumer group most likely to buy a specific product and identified by region, age, demographics, or economic status. The target audience might be as wide as “adults aged 35-54,” or as narrow as “female high school prom-goers in Wabash, Indiana.” Effective ads are created and placed in media with the target audience clearly in mind.

Media relations: dealing with journalists and building good working relationships with the broadcast, print and online media.

Fact sheet:  A standard page in a company’s press kit, the fact sheet gives a brief description of the company’s business and area of expertise, the company’s address(es), phone numbers, principals, date of establishment, etc. A well-prepared fact sheet saves the journalist hours of time – and increases the company’s chance of press coverage.


How is Advertising different from Marketing and PR?

Marketing deals primarily with product awareness and promotion.

Marketing focus is the company’s products.

Public relations deals primarily with the image of the company itself.

Public relations focus is the company’s reputation and perception or view of the company by the public.

Advertising is used in both marketing a company’s products and services and public relations to position a company’s reputation and brand name.

However there is more to both marketing and public relations than to just advertising the company’s products and reputation with the public.

How are Advertising, PR and Marketing alike? How do they work together?

Advertising, public relations, and marketing are alike in that they are tools for achieving the company’s business goals such as growing sales revenue and profits.

They work together by complementing one another in the case of marketing and public relations.

Advertising is used for both marketing and public relations by providing the means in terms of advertisements

Why is Advertising important?

Advertising is important because when it is effective it will sell the company’s products, services and brand name.

Since advertising can be expensive, it is very important that the advertising produce results for the advertiser.

Advertising must first get the consumer’s attention, hold their attention and get the advertising message across.

A business may have the best products and services on the market, however, if prospective customers do not know this, they will not purchase them.

Advertising is one way to make both your company and its products and services known to consumers.

Advertising provides important information that can lead to growing sales and profits

Why is PR important?

Public relations is important because a prospect’s perception and trust of a company can determine whether the company’s products and services will be purchased.

Public relations and marketing should work together to sell the company’s products and services.

Using this link :     

            Which is your favorite ad posted on this site? Why?

My favorite ad posted on this site was

Liberty Mutual: Second Line.

I used to sell insurance and investments.

I can identify with the feeling of being a salesman going to an appointment when the car will not start and as a result you are late for the appointment.

Many people will tend to narrow their focus and not become aware of the people around them when they are late for an important appointment or meeting.

When Glover suddenly turns around and the people are suddenly gone and then he looks up a see the red kite, he realizes he has not been paying much attention to people and the street situation.

 I liked the role reversal near the end of commercial when Danny Glover is about to enter an office building and gives some money to a homeless person asking for some money by holding out a paper cup.

The proverb “There for the grace of God go I.” comes to mind.

Also, the  ending where the meaning of second line or street parades is explained was indeed a surprise ending.

            What type of ads do you see the most on a daily basis?

            Since I blog almost daily and use Yahoo, Google, YouTube and other web sites to gather information, most of the ads I see are online ads. Most of these ads are for cars or other high price items such as computers or for movies that are about to be released.

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Going Down and Boobs, Burgers, Beers, BMWs and Balloons!

Posted on June 30, 2010. Filed under: Advertising, Art, Communications, Digital Communication, Ethical Practices, Ethics, Mass Media, Movies, Music, Television, Web | Tags: , , , , , , , , , |

Sex Sells
This is a two-part assignment.

Part 1

Search for advertising: Find two examples of advertising that you personally think crosses the barrier and heads into bad taste. Doesn’t necessarily have to be sexually oriented, it could be gross, ghastly or simply stupid. For example, a fashion designer had an ad campaign a couple of years ago that featured inmates on death row. As part of your answer, you are going to have to describe the ad, unless of course it is a print ad and you are able to copy or scan it and send the image. After finding the ad, the key will be to explain why you think it is too much. There’s no right answer, just your answer. It should be well-thought out and defendable. If you have a hard time finding something that you personally disapprove of, find some advertising that is appropriate in one place, but not another. For example, an advertisement could easily be fine for the readers of Maxim or Cosmopolitan but not be appropriate in Readers Digest, Time and Sports Illustrated.

Going Down

The four selected television commercial advertisements discussed below  may offend some viewers who would say they cross the barrier or line into obscenity, indecency, and profanity and are therefore in bad taste.

While I do not find any of the four television commercial ads in bad taste and cross the line, a case can be made that all four are offensive and should not be run or broadcast on commercial television.

What one person finds inoffensive and amusing, another person may find offensive and in bad taste.

This is  especially true of individuals  from different cultures, religious upbringings, generations, gender, ages, and political ideologies.

Since the advertiser of the product or service is paying for both the production of the commercial ad and the advertising time to broadcast the commercial, they should decide whether to run  the ad, in what markets, and at what time of the day.

The broadcaster of the ad, in this case television stations, should have the right to refuse to run the ad if they believe it would offend a significant number of viewers or be in violation of the law.

The first two commercials are probably the most offensive in terms of the potential number of viewers that would consider them in bad taste or crossing the barrier or  line.

The first ad is for a man’s shower gel, AXE.

A naked man falling into a room full of woman exercising might in and of itself offend some people.

When the naked man then leads the group of woman in their exercises, some might say this crosses the line.

Full frontal nudity is suggested and many people would find this commercial ad inappropriate for commercial television.

Finally, when the man joins another woman in the next room and the women exercise class continues to exercise with a highly suggestive sexual motion, this may definitely offend some people.

The college male is the apparent target audience of the commercial.

Most young men will find it funny and humorous and not offensive at all.

Some will go out and purchase the product, which is the whole point of the ad.

banned commercial – axe – shower girls

Running a commercial for a television program about a woman who is call girl or professional prostitute would offend some people who think the premise for program crosses the line and is in bad taste.

When the actress makes her case as to the benefits of being a call girl, this would also offend many people who would find the commercial inappropriate for commercial television.

Many children could be watching the program.

The parents of these children may find it inappropriate for their children to be exposed to this message should they be watching when the commercial runs.

Highly religious individuals and those from other cultures that do not tolerate prostitution would usually be offended and think both the commercial and the program are in bad taste.

Why I became a call girl

An anti-smoking ad usually would not offend people because it is attempting to stop people from smoking, a highly addictive habit that is not good for your health.

Smokers, however, might not think the ad is very funny.

After September 11, 2001, any commercial having a part of a building and people  falling to their deaths would be disturbing, if not offensive, to New Yorkers and many Americans. For this reason alone I would not run the ad, although I still find the ad funny.

I should disclose that I do not smoke and avoid confined places were people are smoking.

This is a GREAT anti smoking ad

In Europe and America, the use of a music video to promote a group’s new song is fairly common and not usually considered offensive.

The following commercial would fall into this inoffensive category:

The Bangles – Going Down To Liverpool

However, for Moslems, the musical video ad shows women with their faces and hair uncovered in a car with a man who is apparently not a member of the family. This would make the musical video ad offensive and inappropriate for commercial television where Moslems are a significant portion of the audience such as in Saudi Arabia.

Also, woman performing in public to a large audience, even when only suggestive, would be offensive and in bad taste for some audiences, particularly Moslem and Fundamentalists.

Beauty as well as offensiveness is in the eyes and ears of the beholder.

 Part 2

Opinion Essay: Many advertisers rely on sex to sell their products. Why is this? Does sex sell? Why or why not? Does that bother you or are you okay with it? Is there a way for somebody, say conservative parents, to change this emphasis? If you were king/queen of advertising and could make whatever rules you wanted, what limits on sex would you set up to regulate advertising?

Boobs, Burgers, Beers, BMWs and Balloons!

One  reason many advertisers rely on sex or attractive females and males to sell their products is advertisements first need to get the viewer’s attention by cutting  through the noise or clutter of other advertisements so that their commercials get noticed.

Sex is a widely used natural attention-getter.

A commercial ad may be very visible and give the viewing audience the impression it is a great ad.

However, is the commercial working?

While getting consumer attention is very important, the commercial advertisement must also have viewers register the advertiser’s brand and remember the message of the ad.

By combining sex and humor a commercial ad my go viral and become communicable–“Did you see the ad for….”

Humorous and sexy commercial ads are noticed more and get greater viewer audience attention.

Humorous  and sexy commercial ads are most often considered entertainment and not evaluated as to whether the ad’s message is true or false.

Humorous and sexy commercial ads are usually liked more by the viewing audience.

Ads that are liked by their viewers tend to be noticed, recognized and remembered and thus are effective in delivering the ad’s message and registering the ad’s brand.

Ads must also have salience or be in the conscious mind of a viewer at a given moment.

When it is time for breakfast, lunch or dinner, restaurant advertiser wants their ads to  be remembered.

The advertiser wants to be in viewer’s product category cue and preferrable first in line.

The  same is true when you are purchasing a beverage, a car or a condom.

Another reason many advertisers rely on sex or attractive females and males is these advertisements are effective in selling their products or services.

Sexy ads especially when combined with humor get results.

The four commercial advertisements below use both sex and humor to get your attention, stand out, register the advertiser’s brand, and deliver their message:







The advertisers are trying to associate a positive emotion about men and woman and sex appeal with their products–burgers, beers, cars, and condoms through conditioning and repetition of the commercial.

Buy the product and you too can experience the same thrill or emotion.

All the ads first get your attention and keep it with the sexy and/or beautiful woman and man.

When using sex and humor in commercial advertisements one must be careful that one does not offend a significant number of viewers.

What is acceptable and humorous in one culture or one generation may be offensive and not humorous in another culture or generation.

Both sex and humor can be a two-edged sword that cuts both ways.

I have no problems or issues with commercial ads using sex and attractive men and women to sell a product or service.

Parents can complain to the advertisers of the product or service or to the radio and television stations that carry the commercial ads if they have issues or problems with sex and sexy women and men used to sell product or service.

Most advertiser and stations will listen to their complaints.

However, if the ads are selling products and services, they will note and ignore most of the complaints.

Only when a significant number of consumers complain to advertisers and stations will they take note and pull the ad. 

Since I believe in the republican form of consensual government, I have no desire to be either king or queen of advertising or the person who censors advertising.

The government or state should not regulate advertising. 

The advertisers should self-regulate themselves.

Advertising agencies formed the National Advertising Review Board  (NARB) for the purpose  of hearing complaints against advertisers.

About the National Advertising Review Board (NARB)

“…In 1971, the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), the American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA), and the American Advertising Federation (AAF) formed an alliance with the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB) to create an independent self-regulatory body-the National Advertising Review Council (NARC). To ensure the credibility and impartiality of the self-regulation system, the advertising review process operates under the administrative purview of the CBBB.

Established to provide guidance and set standards of truth and accuracy for national advertisers, NARC sets policy for the National Advertising Review Board (NARB), the National Advertising Division (NAD), the Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU) of the CBBB and the Electronic Retailing Self-Regulation Program (ERSP).

The National Advertising Review Board (NARB) is the NARC appeals board. When an advertiser or challenger disagrees with an NAD or CARU recommendation, they may appeal the decision to the NARB for additional review.

The National Advertising Review Board is made up of 70 professionals from three different categories: National Advertisers (40 members), Advertising Agencies (20 members) and Public members (10) made up of academics and former members of the public sector.

NARB members are nominated for their stature and experience in their respective fields. Nominations are made by the National Advertising Review Council’s supporting organizations: the CBBB, ANA, AAAA and AAF. Nominations are submitted to NARC, the governing body of NARB, for election at its annual meeting. The term for membership is two years, and each member is eligible to be re-appointed for two additional two-year terms.”

The advertiser knows that if he offends his target audience, the ad will fail in selling products or services, could damage the company’s reputation and even lead to possible lawsuits that might results in signficant financial damages.

For example on commercial radio and television explicit sex and full frontal nudity are not acceptable in the United States.

Any company that used explicit sex and frontal nudity on commercial radio and television would face damage to its brand and potential damages as a result of a complaint or lawsuit from offended viewers in the United States.

I would let the local community together with the advertisers and stations determine what they consider acceptable and unacceptable in terms of images, videos, and language.

This means the continued ban on full frontal nudity, explicit sex and the ban on certain words.

Also if a commercial advertisement had gratuitous sex and/or violence, I would probably ban the ad.

This would have to be handled on a case by case basis.

If an advertisement is deceptive, restricts competition or otherwise injures the consumer, the consumer can go to Federal Trade Commission and complain.

 The FTC monitors and deters false, fraudulent, misleading and deceptive advertising in interstate commerce.

False and misleading advertising is considered by the FTC as an unfair trade practice which the FTC has jurisdiction over.

The FTC regulates advertising messages to ensure that consumers receive complete, truthful, and nondeceptive advertising.

The  FTC can stop an ad campaign if they find that the ad is deceptive or injures the consumer.

Federal Trade Commission

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates  the broadcast media and as such indirectly regulates and controls commercial advertising. The FCC takes complaints and can make determinations as to whether an advisement for a product or service is misleading and tasteless.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

Certain words are still not acceptable:

The Seven Words 

In summary the limits should be informally set by the community in terms of what actions, images and words are unacceptable.

However, it is still illegal to broadcast obscene or indecent programming and use profane language in the United States.

These are the limits that advertisers as well as stations that are licensed by the Federal Communications Commission must still observe.

If a viewer or listener believes the advertiser or station has crossed the line into obscenity, indecency and profanity, they can always file a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission:

Federal Communications Commission

“…In making obscenity, indecency, and profanity determinations, context is key. The FCC staff must analyze what was actually aired, the meaning of what was aired, and the context in which it was aired. Accordingly, the FCC asks complainants to provide the following information:

  • Information regarding the details of what was actually said or depicted during the broadcast.

    The complainant may choose the format for providing the information, but it must be sufficiently detailed so that the FCC can determine the words or language used, or the images or scenes depicted during the broadcast and the context of those words, language, images, or scenes. Subject matter alone is not sufficient to determine whether material is obscene, indecent, or profane. For example, stating only that the objectionable programming “discussed sex” or had a “disgusting discussion of sex” is not sufficient. Moreover, the FCC must know the context when analyzing whether specific, isolated words or images are obscene, indecent, or profane. The FCC does not require complainants to provide tapes or transcripts in support of their complaints. Consequently, failure to provide a tape or transcript of a broadcast, in and of itself, will not lead to automatic dismissal or denial of a complaint. Nonetheless, a tape or transcript is helpful in processing a complaint and, if available, should be provided.
  • The date and time of the broadcast. Under federal law, if the FCC assesses a monetary forfeiture against a broadcast station for violation of a rule, it must specify the date the violation occurred. Accordingly, it is important that complainants provide the date the material in question was broadcast. Indecent or profane speech that is broadcast between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. is not actionable. Consequently, the FCC must know the time of day that the material was broadcast.
  • The call sign, channel, or frequency of the station involved.

    To take enforcement action for the airing of prohibited material, the FCC must be able to identify the station that aired the material. By providing the call sign, channel, or frequency of the station, you will help us to quickly and efficiently process your complaint. The name of the program, DJ, personality, song, or film; network; and city and state where you heard or saw the program are also helpful.

Any documentation you provide to the FCC about your complaint becomes part of the FCC’s records and may not be returned.


Today Now!: FCC Okays Nudity On TV If It’s Alyson Hannigan

Alternatively, just say no, and either change the channel or turn the radio or television set off.

Drive your BMW to Nando for a double-breasted burger with a bottle of  cool Bavaria beer and bring your Trust condoms in case it suddenly rains.

“That government is best which governs the least, because its people discipline themselves.”

~Thomas Jefferson


Background Information


Adam Curtis–The Century of Self–Videos


Sex In The Media

Mind Control, Psychology of Brainwashing, Sex & Hypnosis

Propaganda, Black Public Relations & Mind Control Report Part 1


Propaganda, Black Public Relations & Mind Control Report Part 2

Sex in Advertising Mind Control Video Psychology Sex Porn Sell


Unlocking You, Human Needs, Self Actualization, How to, Maslow, Humanistic Psychology

Advertising and the mind of the consumer: what workd, what doesn’t, and why

By Max Sutherland and Alice K. Sylvester


Contrary to popular belief, most ads are not designed to make consumers want to run out and buy the product. Using examples from popular international campaigns, this book provides insight into the minds of both creators and consumers of advertising. It demonstrates why one brand is more likely to come to mind than another, dispels the myths behind subliminal advertising, reveals the tricks successful advertisers use, and clarifies how and why some messages work and some misfire. Meant as a tool for both advertising personnel and consumers who are concerned with the messages with which they are being bombarded, the information presented here explains the tactics that are used to make ads more memorable and exposes what advertisers are really trying to achieve. …”

Controversies in Contemporary Advertising

By Kim Sheehan


Suitable for college level classrooms, this text takes a critical look at the economic, political, social, and ethical aspects of advertising. Sheehan (U. of Oregon’s School of Journalism and Communication) includes 17 chapters addressing such issues as stereotyping, controversial products, consumer culture, and new technology, with abundant examples and b&w illustrations. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR …”

The Advertised Mind: Groundbreaking Insights Into How Our Brains Respond to Advertising

By Erik Du Plessis


Research by Erik du Plessis has helped show that the strongest factor predicting an advertisement’s success is how much the ad is liked.  In The Advertised Mind, du Plessis draws on information about the working of the human brain from psychologists, neurologists and artificial intelligence specialists.  He uses this research to suggest why emotion is such an important factor in establishing a firm memory of an advertisement and predisposing consumers to buy the brand that is being advertised.  He explores what “ad-liking” really means and suggests how this emerging paradigm could lead to a new phase in the ongoing effort to obtain maximum return from advertising spending. …”

Taste and Decency survey results

Amusing or offensive, Axe ads show that sexism sells

By Sam McManis

The Sacramento Bee

“… That’s the thing about this advertising campaign: The ads can offend and entertain in equal measure.

But in the past three years, they’ve also been seen as proof by many that American advertising has pushed the envelope to the breaking point.

Last month, the consumer watchdog group Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood began a letter-writing push to Axe’s parent company, Unilever, accusing it of sexism and hypocrisy.

Unilever is also the parent company of Dove, whose latest ad in its “Campaign for Real Beauty” upbraids sexploitation in advertising and tells parents to “Talk to your daughter before the beauty industry does.”

Susan Linn, director of the consumer group and a professor at Harvard Medical School, says the letter-writing effort has spawned more than 2,000 e-mails to Unilever executives. “Unilever needs to have a consistent policy on how it treats women,” Linn says by phone from Cambridge, Mass.

“Either treat them the Dove way or the Axe way. Unilever has dismissed it as just a joke. But, in fact, advertising images have a powerful effect, even if people don’t realize it. Especially if they don’t realize it.”

In response to e-mailed questions, a statement from the company says that the ads are developed for comedic value and are “not meant to be taken literally.” …”

Secret Diary of a Call Girl

 “…Hannah is more than she appears to be in Secret Diary of a Call Girl . Hannah is also Belle, one of the top high-class call girls in the city of London. Hannah and Belle have the same common goal; to make as much money as possible while they still can. This show was originally shown by ITV2… More in the UK (season one from September 27th 2007 till November 15th 2007). This first season was a huge success for ITV2 with up to two million viewers per episode. Early in 2008, US network Showtime was attracted by the show’s success and bought the license to show two seasons in the US (20 episodes). The broadcast is scheduled to start on June 16th 2008. The second season will air on ITV2 starting September 11th 2008. More to the shows success: The controversial sex scenes also resulted in a nomination for best soft core production at the “UK Adult Film Awards” in 2007. But that’s not all! The first season has also been nominated for the “Golden Rose TV award” in the category “best drama”. Only weeks after the first series ended, ITV announced a second series, and production started in early 2008. The third series aired in early 2010 almost simultaneously on ITV2 and the US station SHO. In April 2010 reports claim there will be a fourth series for which Billie Piper will get £2m. …”

Sex in Advertising

“…Sex in advertising is the use of sexual or erotic imagery (also called “sex appeal”) in advertising to draw interest to a particular product, for purpose of sale. A feature of sex in advertising is that the imagery used, such as that of a pretty woman, typically has no connection to the product being advertised. The purpose of the imagery is to attract the attention of the potential customer or user. The type of imagery that may be used is very broad, and would include nudity, cheesecake, and beefcake, even if it is often only suggestively sexual. …”

“…The use of sex in advertising can be highly overt or extremely subtle. It ranges from relatively explicit displays of sexual acts, to the use of basic cosmetics to enhance attractive features.

Over the past two decades, the use of increasingly explicit sexual imagery in consumer-oriented print advertising has become almost commonplace. Sexuality is considered one of the most powerful tools of marketing and particularly advertising[citation needed]. Post-advertising sales response studies have shown it can be very effective for attracting immediate interest, holding that interest, and, in the context of that interest, introducing a product that somehow correlates with that interest.

Gallup & Robinson, an advertising and marketing research firm, has reported that in more than 50 years of testing advertising effectiveness, it has found the use of the erotic to be a significantly above-average technique in communicating with the marketplace, “…although one of the more dangerous for the advertiser. Weighted down with taboos and volatile attitudes, sex is a Code Red advertising technique … handle with care … seller beware; all of which makes it even more intriguing.” This research has led to the popular idea that “sex sells”.

In contemporary mainstream consumer advertising (e.g., magazines, network and cable television), sex is present in promotional messages for a wide range of branded goods. Ads feature provocative images of well-defined women (and men) in revealing outfits and postures selling clothing, alcohol, beauty products, and fragrances. Advertisers such as Calvin Klein, Victoria’s Secret, and Pepsi use these images to cultivate a ubiquitous sex-tinged media presence. Also, sexual information is used to promote mainstream products not traditionally associated with sex. For example, the Dallas Opera recent reversal of declining ticket sales has been attributed to the marketing of the more lascivious parts of its performances (Chism, 1999).[1] …”

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When Radio Was–Videos

Posted on June 19, 2010. Filed under: Books, Communications, Issues, Law, Movies, Music, Radio, Recordings, Regulations, Television | Tags: , , , , |


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Background Articles and Videos

Dick Cavett

“…Richard Alva “Dick” Cavett (born November 19, 1936) is a former American television talk show host known for his conversational style and in-depth discussion of issues. Cavett appeared regularly on nationally broadcast television in the United States in five consecutive decades, the 1960s through the 2000s.

In recent years, Cavett has written a blog for the New York Times, promoted DVDs of his former shows, and hosted replays of his classic TV interviews with Groucho Marx, Katharine Hepburn, and others on Turner Classic Movies channel.[1][2] …”

Radio History

The History of Radio

Related Posts On Pronk Palisades

Orson Welles–War of The Worlds–Videos

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